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Research Report

Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.: Ecology, silviculture and productivity

Haruni Krisnawati
Maarit Kallio
Markku Kanninen
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2011
Pages: 22
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-v)
    Haruni Krisnawati, Maarit Kallio and Markku Kanninen
  2. (pp. 1-1)

    Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd., also known as candlenut, is one of the world’s great domesticated multipurpose trees. It is native to the Indo-Malaysia region and was introduced throughout the Pacific islands in ancient times. In Indonesia, it has long been grown for both subsistence and commercial purposes, sustaining people’s everyday lives, especially in the eastern part of the country. The species can be used for various purposes; the seeds provide material for lighting, cooking and pharmaceuticals, and the trunk is used for timber

    Aleurites moluccana is distributed across almost all islands in the Indonesian archipelago. Despite this wide distribution, and...

  3. (pp. 1-4)

    Botanical name: Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.

    Family: Euphorbiaceae

    Subfamily: Crotonoideae

    Synonyms: Aleurites javanica Gand., Aleurites remyi Sherff, Aleurites triloba Forster & Forster f., Camirium moluccanum (L.) Ktze., Croton moluccanus L., Jatropha moluccana L.

    Vernacular/common names: Common names in Indonesia: Buwa kare, kembiri, kemili, kemiling, kereh, madang ijo, tanoan (Sumatra); kamere, kemiri, komere, midi, miri, muncang, pidekan (Java); keminting, kemiri (Kalimantan); berau, bontalo dudulaa, boyau, lana, saketa, wiau (Sulawesi); kemiri, kemwiri, kumiri, mi, nena, nyenga (Maluku); tenu (Nusa Tenggara); anoi (Papua) (Martawijaya et al. 1989).

    Common names in other countries: candlenut, candleberry, varnish tree, Indian or Belgaum walnut (England); lauci, nggerenggere, sikeci,...

  4. (pp. 4-5)

    Flowering and fruiting begin when the trees are 3–4 years old. The tree typically flowers in September–October. However, the flowering period can vary between countries, e.g. in Australia the flowering period is from January to March (; in Sri Lanka flowering commences in April to May; and in Uganda, the tree can flower several times a year. In several places in Hawaii, flowering and fruiting can take place almost continuously, and frequently, flowers and fruits at all stages of ripeness occur in a tree simultaneously (Elevitch and Manner 2006).

    The seeds are mature when the fruit has changed colour...

  5. (pp. 5-5)

    Propagation of A. moluccana seedlings is easily done by seed. The seeds are usually sown in a seedbed with a spacing of 5×5 cm. The seeds are pressed gently into the soil and then covered by a layer of dried leaves or grass up to 3–10 cm thick. The grass is then burnt for about 3 minutes. Immediately after burning and whilst seeds are still hot, they are thrown into cold water, which makes the hard shells crack. This kind of treatment can result in a germination rate of more than 85% for good seeds. The germination usually occurs 15–20...

  6. (pp. 5-6)

    Early weeding is recommended for A. moluccana as it is vulnerable, especially to light competition (Directorate of Industrial Plantation Forests 1990). Weeding should be done 4 times a year (or every 3 months) during the first year after planting. For the first 1–3 years after planting, weeding should be done every 6 months until the trees are approaching canopy closure (Dali and Gintings 1993). Weeding can be done along the row of the main species (line weeding) or in an area of 1 m in diameter around the seedling (ring weeding). Once the trees are established, they require little care....

  7. (pp. 6-11)

    The ability to predict the growth and yield potential of A. moluccana plantations is of considerable importance for plantation planning. Elevitch and Manner (2006) said that A. moluccana trees can grow quickly; however, little information on the growth and productivity of the species is available. The information on growth and yield presented here is based on preliminary data of young A. moluccana trees (3–5 years old) collected from only a few scattered trees grown by smallholders in South Kalimantan. For older stands, information was taken from the Japan International Forestry Promotion and Cooperation Center (JIFPRO)’s website ( and a report...