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Research Report

Swietenia macrophylla King: Ecology, silviculture and productivity

Haruni Krisnawati
Maarit Kallio
Markku Kanninen
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2011
Pages: 24
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-v)
    Haruni Krisnawati, Maarit Kallio and Markku Kanninen
  2. (pp. 1-1)

    Swietenia macrophylla King, also known as big-leaf mahogany, is a tropical tree species native to Central and South America. Swietenia macrophylla has a wide natural distribution, extending from Mexico to Bolivia and central Brazil (Lamb 1966). However, large areas of former S. macrophylla forests have been converted to other uses, or the remaining forests are few (Shono and Snook 2006). The depletion of S. macrophylla populations has lead to concern for the future of the species and its commercial trade. In 2002, S. macrophylla was listed in Appendix II (species that may face extinction if trade is not controlled) of...

  3. (pp. 1-4)

    Botanical name: Swietenia macrophylla King

    Family: Meliaceae

    Subfamily: Swietenoideae

    Synonyms: Swietenia belizensis Lundell, Swietenia candollei Pittier, Swietenia krukovii Gleason, Swietenia macrophylla King var. marabaensis Ledoux et Lobato, Swietenia tessmannii Harms

    Vernacular/common names:

    Common names in Indonesia: mahoni (all parts of Indonesia)

    Common names in other countries: bara mahauni, bara-mahagoni, mahagni (Bangladesh); mahogany, big- or large-leaved mahogany, bastard mahogany, Brazilian mahogany tree, Colombian mahogany tree, Dominican mahogany, Honduras mahogany, Mexican mahogany tree, Peruvian mahogany tree, Spanish mahogany, West Indian mahogany (England); acajou du Honduras, acajou du Venezuela, acajou étranger (France); Echtes mahagoni (Germany); mogano (Italy); cheria mahogany (Malaysia); mahok, mahonie (Netherland);...

  4. (pp. 4-5)

    Swietenia macrophylla is propagated from seeds. The best outcomes can be achieved by using seeds from a mother tree in excellent form and health. Seed production fluctuates considerably from year to year. The fluctuation may reflect variation in flowering phenology, or failure of pollination or fertilisation (Mayhew and Newton 1998). Flowering and fruiting regularly occur annually from 10 to 15 years of age. Flowering and fruiting seasons differ according to geographical location. For example, in the central and northern parts of South America, the tree blooms from April to June, and the fruits ripen from January to March of the...

  5. (pp. 5-6)

    The seeds are sown in a bed of light sand in furrows or holes 3–7 cm deep. Germinating seeds should be under shade and kept moist. The sowing density may vary depending on the desired size of the planting stock and whether or not transplanting is intended.

    As reported by Neil (1986) and Bauer (1987) in Mayhew and Newton (1998), to obtain seedlings of 30–60 cm in height, a square spacing of 10–15 cm is commonly recommended, and to obtain seedlings of 100 cm in height, a spacing of 20×30 cm is suggested.

    Swietenia macrophylla can also...

  6. (pp. 6-8)

    Weeding is required to ensure maximum growth and survival of seedlings. Some weeds commonly found in young S. macrophylla plantations are Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Clibadium surinamense L., Melastoma malabathricum L. and Merremia umbellata Hallier (Nazif and Pratiwi 1989). Weeds that are as tall as or taller than the seedlings should be removed. During the first 2 years after planting, weeding and hoeing should be done 4 times every 6 months (Directorate of Industrial Plantation Forests 1990, Mindawati and Tata 2001). Either line weeding (along the rows of main species) or ring weeding (in a 1-m diameter around the seedling) is...

  7. (pp. 8-12)

    The ability to predict the growth and yield potential of S. macrophylla plantations is of considerable importance for plantation planning. However, relatively little reliable experimental data covering periodic stand measurement until the end of rotation are available. The information on growth and yield presented here is based on preliminary data of young S. macrophylla stands (up to 5 years old) collected from 76 temporary sample plots established in smallholder plantations in South Kalimantan and some data from 6 permanent plots (covering an age range of 5–10 years) collected by Susila and Njurumana (2005) in S. macrophylla plantations in Nusa...