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Research Report

Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.: Ecology, silviculture and productivity

Haruni Krisnawati
Maarit Kallio
Markku Kanninen
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2011
Pages: 22
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-v)
    Haruni Krisnawati, Maarit Kallio and Markku Kanninen
  2. (pp. 1-1)

    Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., also known as kadam, is a tropical tree species that is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. According to Slik (2006), A. cadamba has been planted on a large scale in Indonesia since the 1930s. It has been cultivated in Java (mostly in West Java and East Java provinces), Kalimantan (mostly in South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces), Sumatra (across almost all provinces on the island), Sulawesi (across almost all provinces on the island), Sumbawa (West Nusa Tenggara) and Irian Jaya (Papua) (Martawijaya et al. 1989).

    Because of its very fast growth, its ability...

  3. (pp. 1-4)

    Botanical name: Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.

    Family: Rubiaceae

    Subfamily: Cinchonoideae

    Synonyms: Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) A. Rich. Ex. Walp., Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb.) Havil., Nauclea cadamba (Roxb.), Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser, Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz., Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich., Anthocephalus morindaefolius Korth.

    Vernacular/common names:

    Common names in Indonesia: Galupai, galupai bengkal, harapean, johan, kalampain, kelampai, kelempi, kiuna, lampaian, pelapaian, selapaian, serebunaik (Sumatra); jabon, jabun, hanja, kelampeyan, kelampaian (Java); ilan, kelampayan, taloh, tawa telan, tuak, tuneh, tuwak (Kalimantan); bance, pute, loeraa, pontua, suge manai, sugi manai, pekaung, toa (Sulawesi); gumpayan, kelapan, mugawe, sencari (Nusa Tenggara); aparabire, masarambi (Papua) (Martawijaya et al. 1989).

    Common names...

  4. (pp. 4-4)

    Seed production of A. cadamba under plantation conditions usually begins by the age of 5 years. The tree starts flowering at the age of 4 years. The flowering period commonly lasts 2–5 months. In Indonesia, flowering starts in April–August, sometimes March–November, and the fruits mature in June–August (Martawijaya et al. 1989). In other countries, flowering and fruiting periods commence later (Table 2).

    The seeds are mature when the fruit has changed colour to dark brown. The fruits are harvested from the tree by climbing or from covers on the ground after shaking the branches.

    Special techniques...

  5. (pp. 4-5)

    Because of their small size, the seeds are mixed with fine sand (1:10) and sown in seedbeds (Jøker 2000). Alternatively, a salt or pepper pot can be used for sowing. The seedbeds should be protected from heavy rain and not watered too much as damping-off can be a problem. To prevent damping-off disease, seedlings should be placed in well-ventilated conditions. A mild fungicidal spray may also be used to prevent the damping-off (Soerianegara and Lemmens 1993). Direct sowing is not very successful because of the small size of the seeds and their sensitivity to drought, excessive moisture and direct sun....

  6. (pp. 5-6)

    Anthocephalus cadamba is generally considered a light-demander, requiring high light availability for seedling growth. The seedlings are highly susceptible to weeds. Therefore, after planting, the area around the young seedlings needs to be weeded of competing vegetation, especially of climbers and plants causing shade. Smallholders in Indonesia commonly practise both manual and chemical weed controls. Weeding should be done several times during the first few years after planting until the trees approach canopy closure. The interval between 2 successive weedings is usually 3 months during the first year, and 6 months after the first year (Soerianegara and Lemmens 1993).


  7. (pp. 6-10)

    The ability to predict the growth and yield potential of A. cadamba plantations is of considerable importance for plantation planning. Several sources have reported that A. cadamba grows fast (e.g. Soerianegara and Lemmens 1993, Orwa et al. 2009), but extremely few reliable experimental data on which to base such predictions are available. The information on growth and yield presented here is based on preliminary data of young A. cadamba stands (up to 5 years old) collected from 92 temporary sample plots established in smallholder plantations in South Kalimantan. For older stands, information was taken from 26 permanent sample plots distributed...