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Research Report

Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesian Forests: An assessment of the major threats, research efforts and literature

Editor K.S.S. Nair
Copyright Date: Dec. 1, 2000
Pages: 95
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-2)
    K.S.S. Nair

    Indonesia is a ‘forest country ’. In 1993, the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry estimated (MoF 1993) that about three-quarters of the 193 million hectares (ha) of the land area, i.e., about 144 million ha, are covered by forest. FAO estimates in 1996 showed the forest area to be 96.2 million ha, i.e., about half of the land area, and there has been further reduction in forested land since then (Fox et al. 2000). This trend of deforestation has been continuing for some time. Shifting agriculture by indigenous communities and logging by forest concessionaires have created about 30 million ha of...

  2. (pp. 3-9)
    C. Cossalter and K.S.S. Nair

    Indonesian forests are in a state of transition. The traditional low-level exploitation o f forests by indigenous communities has been supplemented, over the past 30 years, by increased logging operations for selected timbers which has led to degradation of foests over large areas. Presently, there is large-scale replacement of degraded natural forests with short rotation industrial tree crops, raised and managed by commercial companies. Estate crops such as rubber and oil palm have also replaced part of the natural forests. What drives these changes is not the Indonesian consumer demands, but the rapidly rising international demand for engineered wood products,...

  3. (pp. 11-13)
    K.S.S. Nair and Sumardi

    Conventional wisdom suggests that natural stands of tropical forests, characterised by high species diversity, are free of pests and diseases. Tropical forests are often quoted as examples that demonstrate the strong correlation between diversity and stability, in relation to pest and disease outbreaks. However, a critical study of the literature shows that there is more discussion than data on this relationship (Nair et al. 1986). Plantations, on the other hand, characterised by even-aged stands of the same tree species are generally believed to be pest and disease prone. There is enough data to support this generalisation, although monocultures of some...

  4. (pp. 15-38)
    K.S.S. Nair and Sumardi

    In this Chapter, the pests and diseases of 24 forest trees, including pulpwood and timber species, planted in Indonesia are discussed. The species are based on information supplied by plantation companies and include some species planted only on an experimental scale, so there is little information on their pests and diseases.

    A brief introductory paragraph gives general information on the species, including its natural distribution, planting locations within Indonesia (see also Fig. 2.1) and uses. This is followed by a brief description of the damage caused by the main insect pests and diseases. Then information is provided on pests and...

  5. (pp. 39-44)
    K.S.S. Nair and Sumardi

    Indonesian forests are in a state of transition (see Chapter 2). The rate of conversion of natural forests to plantations in recent years has been faster than ever before. There is rapid expansion of plantations of new, fast-growing species in the outer islands while traditional, slow-growing timber species like teak, pine and Agathis continue to be grown in Java. One species, Acacia mangium, accounts for 64% of the area planted in recent times (Chapter 2, Table 2.6). Paraserianthes falcataria occupies 7% of the area followed by Gmelina arborea and eucalypts. Paraserianthes falcataria is being expanded on private lands in Java...