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Research Report

Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation Forests:: A Progress Report

E.K.S. Nambiar
A. Tiarks
C. Cossalter
J. Ranger
Copyright Date: Dec. 1, 2000
Pages: 107
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-2)
    E.K.S. Nambiar

    It has been widely recognised that an increasing proportion of the demand for wood supply should be met by timber harvest from planted forests rather than native forests. This is particularly so in many tropical and subtropical countries which have either established large areas of plantation forests (e.g., Brazil, India) or have embarked upon plantation forestry at a significant scale (e.g., Vietnam, Uruguay). Investors in these plantations seek to benefit from their short rotation resources, largely facilitated by industrial scale operations.

    The strong need for growing plantation forests is evident in Kerala, where this workshop took place. Booth and Nambiar...

  2. (pp. 3-9)
    J.L.M. Gon çalves, M.I.P. Serrano, K.C.F.S. Mendes and J.L. Gava

    This paper reports the effect of site management practices of minimum and intensive cultivation of the soil on the growth of a stand of Eucalyptus grandis and on N mineralisation. The study site is a commercial plantation of E. grandis in Itatinga district, São Paulo State, Brazil. At 39 months of age, the height growth among the treatments where the residues were retained, incorporated or burnt did not differ from each other. The height differences among these treatments decreased with time. These results highlight the temporary effect on initial growth promoted by the large availability of nutrients released by burning...

  3. (pp. 11-20)
    J.P. Bouillet, J.D. Nzila, J.P. Laclau and J. Ranger

    Sustainability is a research priority for clonal eucalypt plantations planted on very sandy and poor soils in the Congo. Results from a study using cloned Eucalyptus hybrids conducted since 1997 show: (1) a marked depressive effect on tree growth of removing slash and tree biomass after harvest; (2) a high risk of nutrient leaching in the first year after harvesting linked to the high rate of litter decomposition; (3) a temporary starter effect of litter burning but a depressive effect in the medium term; and (4) a slow but lasting impact of burying litter. It is concluded that site management...

  4. (pp. 21-30)
    B. du Toit, L.J. Esprey, R.A. Job, G.F. Fuller and S.D. Dovey

    This project investigates the effects of early, intensive management operations on stand productivity and long-term nutritional sustainability in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The design, layout and objectives (including crop rotation treatment with Acacia mearnsii) are discussed. Before clear felling the previous eucalypt crop, the stand characteristics and biomass in the various ecosystem components were assessed. The standing volume was 147 m³ ha⁻¹. Biomass of stem wood, harvest residue, forest floor, stumps and roots amounted to 124, 40, 70, 20 and 63 t ha⁻¹, respectively. Treatment implementation (harvesting operations, slash management and re-establishment) are described. Changes in the mass of the forest...

  5. (pp. 31-40)
    D.P. Xu, Z.J. Yang, B. Dell and M. Gong

    Effects of harvest residue management, intercropping with N-fixing trees, fertilisation and regeneration by coppice and replanting on tree growth, soil properties and soil nutrient availability are discussed in this paper. A reduction in the amount of residue removed during harvest increased tree growth by increasing available nutrient supply and reducing the loss of soil organic C after tree planting. Tree growth in the treatment where all organic matter was removed and weeds were periodically controlled was better than in the whole tree harvest plots because of reduced weed competition. Intercropping with N-fixing trees enhanced tree growth two years after planting....

  6. (pp. 41-49)
    E.B. Hardiyanto, A. Ryantoko and S. Anshori

    Acacia mangium plantations managed by PT. Musi Hutan Persada are located mostly on red yellow podsolic soils having poor nutrient reserves. This study on the effects of inter-rotation management on site productivity addresses the growing concern about the long-term productivity of the plantations. Preliminary results indicate total standing biomass at 9 years of age was 18.95 t ha⁻¹ and litter production 16.80 t ha⁻¹. Nitrogen, Ca and K are in high demand by A. mangium, while P and Mg are taken up in smaller amounts. Harvesting merchantable stems with minimum diameter of 10 cm will remove from one hectare 375...

  7. (pp. 51-60)
    K.V. Sankaran, K.C. Chacko, R.C. Pandalai, J. Kallarackal, C.K. Somen, J.K. Sharma, M. Balagopalan, M. Balasundaran, S. Kumaraswamy, S. Sankar, R.J. Gilkes, T.S. Grove, D. Mendham and A.M. O’Connell

    The research is being conducted at four different locations in Kerala and is based on the two main eucalypts (Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. grandis) used in industrial plantations in the region. At each location, a series of six designed experiments has been initiated to investigate aspects of harvest residue management, nutrient application, ground vegetation control, use of legume undercrops to increase soil fertility and practical methods of water and soil conservation. Within the general experimental framework established, research is focused on four inter-linked subprojects, investigating the impact of silvicultural options on - (1) nutrient status and nutrient cycling, (2) plant...

  8. (pp. 61-71)
    A.M. O’Connell, T.S. Grove, D. Mendham and S.J. Rance

    The impact of alternative strategies for managing harvest residues in second rotation Eucalyptus globulus plantations is being examined at two sites of contrasting soil fertility status in southwestern Australia. Treatments being examined in a randomised block experiment are complete residue removal, residue retention, increased residue and residue burning. Large changes in soil properties due to burning residues (increases in pH, cation concentrations and labile P) were relatively shortlived with these properties returning to near pre-burn levels within 1 to 2 years after treatment. High rates of residue application significantly increased cation concentrations in near surface soil (0-5 cm). There were...

  9. (pp. 73-81)
    J.A. Simpson, Z.H. Xu, T. Smith, P. Keay, D.O. Osborne and M. Podberscek

    Biomass and nutrient distribution in a 30-year-old slash pine (P. elliottii) plantation were estimated at clear fall to provide a basis for interpreting changes in the nutrient pools and tree responses to harvest residue management practices applied at the establishment of the second rotation. Total biomass at clearfall of a typical slash pine stand is 316 t ha⁻¹, of which 206 t ha⁻¹ is removed in logs. Nitrogen and P removed in logs account for 7.6% and 3.4% of total N and P in the ecosystem. Residues remaining after logging contain 12% of the total N and 5.2% of the...

  10. (pp. 83-86)
    Fan Shaohui, Yang Chendong, He Zongming, He Zhiying, Lin Sizu, Lu Shantu, Ying Jinhua and Yang Xujing

    The effects of leaving different amounts of logging residue on the growth of 2-year-old Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) planted after harvesting a 29-year-old, first rotation plantation in Fujian province, China, were studied. The best survival and growth of the trees were on the double slash treatment but the next best treatment was complete removal of organic matter residues. The poorest biomass accumulation was 372 g tree⁻¹ in the whole tree harvest treatment and increased incrementally as more slash was retained with 576 g tree⁻¹ in the double slash treatment. Burning logging slash did not have any significant effect on survival...

  11. (pp. 87-94)
    C.K. Mok, L.C. Cheah and Y.K. Chan

    PT. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP) is establishing plantations in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia for sustainable wood supply for a pulp mill. Acacia mangium is the dominant species planted and is grown on a seven-year rotation. Since 1993, RAPP’s plantation development activities have increased dramatically with an annual planting programme of about 35 000 hectares. The plantation area is planned to reach 270 000 hectares by 2002. This paper describes the study plan for research on inter-rotational site productivity and management of A. mangium. The experiment will test on-site effects of different treatments of organic matter or aboveground biomass...

  12. (pp. 95-99)
    J.P. Laclau, J. Ranger, J. de D. Nzila and J.P. Bouillet

    Since 1978, 42 000 hectares of clonal plantations have been established on a former savanna in a 50 km radius around Pointe-Noire. Their main purpose is the production of pulpwood. Research on the sustainability of these plantations is a priority because they are grown on a short rotation on soils with small reserves of available nutrients. Among several studies focussing on this goal, the biogeochemical cycle was assessed in a clonal plantation of a eucalypt hybrid and in a native savanna for 1.5 years. This hybrid comes from natural crosses between two or three individuals of Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex...

  13. (pp. 101-103)
    A. Tiarks, M. Elliott-Smith and R. Stagg

    In the United States, the majority of publicly owned forest land is managed by the Forest Service, an Agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The laws and regulations that guide the Forest Service requires that no management activity, including wood production, will permanently impair the productivity of the land. In partnership with the National Forest Management, the research arm of the Forest Service developed a national research plan to install studies within major forest types and physiographic regions (Powers et al. 1990). The project has a set of broad objectives. In particular it aims at understanding how management-induced changes...

  14. (pp. 105-108)
    A. Tiarks and E.K.S. Nambiar

    An important feature of this network project is the opportunity for all the participants to meet for sharing results and ideas at reasonable intervals at one of the project locations. We met at Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) for the first workshop, which discussed and agreed upon the core objectives, formalised the project plan and the strategy for implementation. At the second meeting held in Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), the workshop reported on locations of sites, progress in installation, methods and early results from some sites. This third workshop hosted by the Kerala Forest Research Institute (India) was the first since the experiments...