Climate change is possibly the greatest environmental threat to sustainable forest management, biodiversity and local livelihoods in the tropics. While most of the human-induced causes of climate change come from the combustion of fossil fuels, some 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions are from landuse, landuse change and forestry (LULUCF). Most of these net emissions are from deforestation in the tropics.
Opportunities for mitigating a small proportion of global emissions through changes in landuse and forestry have long been seen as a means for tropical countries to contribute to the concurrent goals of slowing climate change and contributing to sustainable...
(For matrix, see Annex I Table I)
There are three major institutional/organizational dimensions surrounding LULUCF projects. All three dimensions are likely to interact and influence project performance. They are as follows:
• The functioning of institutions at the national level and their implications for LULUCF projects.
• The need for information dissemination and capacity building among national organizations and communities involved in LULUCF projects.
• The so-called ‘architecture’ of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the implications of the various structures proposed on conduct and performance.
The potential for sustainable development achievements through South-North carbon credit transfers generated by LULUCF...
(For matrix, see Annex I Table 2)
Scale was identified as a main issue in the current negotiation process. In implementing the Kyoto Protocol, there are widespread concerns about the relative magnitude of abatement between Annex B and non-Annex B countries via the CDM; between sink and non-sink projects within the CDM; and about the equity of distribution of opportunities for the CDM between countries. Various concerns have led to calls for quantitative restrictions (caps) on emissions trading and the CDM, and restrictions on project type eligibility under the CDM. The design of CDM rules will have impacts on distribution...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 3)
The need to reduce costs was identified and set up as the main agenda for further research. Depending on the type of cost, different institutions and different methodologies and strategies will have to be developed in order to meet this objective.
The following social and production costs were identified:
These are costs directly related to the production process of a specific good, in our case, carbon permits. The major components are implementation, operation and maintenance costs, the opportunity costs of land, and capacity building.
Production costs were not considered a relevant issue for...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 4)
Article 12.S(b) of the Kyoto Protocol requires that the certification of emission reductions resulting from a project be based on their real, measurable and long-term benefits in relation to the mitigation of climate change. There is no agreement on what constitutes 'long-term’ in the context of the Protocol, nor on the process by which agreement might be reached. Emission reductions resulting from improvements in the efficiency of industrial equipment, power generation plants and other uses of fossil fuels (or from switching to renewable or non-green house gas (GHG) emitting sources of energy) can...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 5)
Leakage is one of the main concerns raised by negotiators and other stakeholders opposed to the inclusion of LULUCF in the CDM. Unfortunately, insufficient research is being conducted to address these concerns, relative to efforts on baselines and additionality. Some research on monitoring and validation for individual projects is being conducted but this has not been synthesised and linked to the policy process, and may not have been conducted in sufficient detail or scope.
Four areas of research were suggested:
• A typology of leakage
• Guidance for project design and selection to...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 6)
The production of forest carbon requires consistent, reliable, accurate and verifiable measurement. While methods developed by Winrock International and SGS are widely used, they are perceived to be costly. The lack of monitoring standards for LULUCF limits the progress that can be made in refining methods and the application of methods. This also constrains an understanding of the costs of monitoring under various project scenarios.
The determination of both monitoring standards and standard methods of monitoring would reduce uncertainties in the quantification of carbon benefits from LULUCF projects and would help to reduce...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 7)
Article 12.5 of the Kyoto Protocol states that a CDM project must result in carbon credits that are ‘additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity’. Thus, a reliable, verifiable and cost-effective baseline is needed to calculate CER from CDM projects to demonstrate additionality to what would have happened otherwise. So far, research on baseline and additionality determination has focused on the energy sector and neglected LULUCF. While baseline issues have played a relatively minor role at The Hague, they are likely to become more important at...
(For matrix see Annex I Table 8)
Research topics that cut across other synthesis groups were identified, as were research topics that had not been discussed but which were important to landuse, landuse change and forestry. Finally, a discussion was held of the actions to be taken before COP 6 scheduled for July 2001 in Bonn.
Four crosscutting research topics were identified:
• Identify sustainable development indicators;
• Reduce transaction costs;
• Synthesise experience from other development sectors;
• Build a science-enhanced global inventory.
The CDM was established to help developing countries achieve sustainable development. However, no clear guidelines exist...