Taking a conventional view of forest management, a broad distinction may be drawn between
professional forest management as a ‘scientific’ discipline that enables states and nations to control, regulate and exploit forest resources under their jurisdiction; and
indigenous forest management systems, developed locally by forest-dependent communities and varying greatly in technical and social sophistication.
Professional foresters have not always recognised the latter form of management. Indeed, for many years local people were often viewed as destroyers of forests through agricultural activities such as grazing and land clearance. As the global forest area shrinks, the reasons for forest loss have been...