Tropical deforestation contributes around a quarter of anthropogenically released greenhouse gases (FAO 2005). Environmental changes, whether for timber extraction or plantations, the destruction of forests by fire and the degradation of peatlands, mean that Indonesia is the fourth largest contributor to the overall greenhouse gases causing global warming in the world (World Resources Institute 2009).
To offer benefits, alternatives to fossil fuels need to:
have more environmental benefits than the fuel they replace
be economically competitive
be produced in sufficient quantities to make a meaningful impact on energy demands
show a net energy gain (Hill et al. 2006).