Findings reflect wide variability in the legal foundations and institutional mechanisms for the protection of customary rights and in the processes for consulting customary land users. This variation provides a basis for learning lessons on what more progressive legal protections might look like.
All of the case-study countries were found to have constitutional, policy and/or legislative provisions to safeguard customary land rights. All countries also forbid the sale of land to foreign entities. However, we observed significant differences regarding those who hold ultimate rights to land and may therefore issue leasehold title to investors.
Ghana has the most far-reaching provisions...