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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Vietnam: Drivers, agents and institutions

Pham Thu Thuy
Moira Moeliono
Nguyen Thi Hien
Nguyen Huu Tho
Vu Thi Hien
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2012
Pages: 98
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. xii-xiv)

    As global interest in addressing climate change has grown, so too has the attention directed towards the large impact on climate wrought by processes of deforestation and forest degradation. This has led to the development of a new approach towards mitigating climate change that uses economic incentive structures and a target of ‘reducing’ rather than ‘ending’ emissions in a cost-effective manner, the so-called ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation’ (REDD) mechanism. The idea was introduced at the 2007 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP 13) in Bali, and further developed into ‘REDD+’...

  2. (pp. 1-12)

    Vietnam is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the combination of its geographical characteristics – coastal location, low-lying river deltas, steep mountain ranges – and an economy dependent on agricultural production (RECOFTC, ASFN and SDC 2011). Recognising this vulnerability and the need to cope with the impacts of climate change, Vietnam was an early adopter of various policies dealing with climate change in general and with the importance of forests in mitigating climate change in particular. This chapter presents an overview of the status of forests in Vietnam and forest governance. Also discussed are the drivers...

  3. (pp. 13-30)

    The forestry sector in Vietnam is influenced by multiple institutional factors, global as well as local. The present forestry policy was developed in the context of wider change. First was the wide-reaching policy reform, known as Doi Moi, which transformed the centralised command economy to a market-oriented, multisector economy (see Chapter 3 for more details). Second, following global trends, the policy tried to balance economic development with the need for forest protection and conservation with varying degrees of success. Finally, through the processes of decentralisation, the forestry sector was decentralised within the strongly entrenched hierarchy of the party system that...

  4. (pp. 31-43)

    This chapter analyses REDD+ from a political economy perspective, including an overview of macroeconomics, the political system and reforms during recent decades. We begin with a brief overview of the country’s political system. We then explain the general decision-making processes linked with decision-making bodies, including political parties, parliament, ministries and communes, and examine the system’s strengths as well as problems that may arise from it. We then discuss economic development and its impact, particularly in relation to hydropower development and wood-processing industries. In particular, this chapter focuses on the cause-effect linkages between changes in the political economy, deforestation and forest...

  5. (pp. 44-58)

    This chapter discusses the processes behind the formation of the REDD+ policy in Vietnam. Because of the influence of international agreements and conventions on policymaking in Vietnam, as mentioned in Chapter 2, the first section presents some of these agreements and describes Vietnam’s engagement in them. The subsequent sections examine REDD+- related policy processes and the actors involved.

    Vietnam has shown great commitment to mitigating climate change, as demonstrated through its participation in international initiatives. The country is a signatory to the UNFCCC (1994) and the Kyoto Protocol (2002). Vietnam also meets all three requirements for participation in the Clean...

  6. (pp. 59-66)

    This chapter draws on the analyses and findings in previous chapters to make an overall assessment of the Vietnamese context in relation to REDD+ and offers suggestions for the future implementation of REDD+ in Vietnam. The following sections evaluate REDD+ in Vietnam using the ‘3E’s (effectiveness, efficiency, equity) as an analytical framework:

    Effectiveness: Can present policies in general, and policies on REDD+ in particular, reduce deforestation and forest degradation? In return, can REDD+ contribute to national efforts to reduce deforestation and forest degradation?

    Efficiency: Will REDD+ be implemented with the least cost possible?

    Equity: Will benefits and costs be shared...

  7. (pp. 67-69)

    This report started by examining the forestry sector in Vietnam, deforestation rates and drivers of deforestation. Vietnam stands out as having achieved a net increase in forest cover in recent years, thus having entered Phase 4 of the forest transition. This increase is largely due to expansion of plantations as well as re-categorisation of existing forests and natural regeneration (Vu et al. 2011); it has also been driven by forest tenure reform, new technologies and market liberalisation (Sikor 2001). Vietnam is also notable for its concerted reform efforts. The opening of the economy has had far-reaching impacts. In particular in...