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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Mozambique: Drivers, agents and institutions

Almeida Sitoe
Alda Salomão
Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2012
Pages: 72
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. xvi-xvi)

    Mozambique is one of the few countries in Africa with a considerable proportion of its area still covered with natural forests. At the same time, it is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a high rate of deforestation and forest degradation. Thus, in response to global interests in financing efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+), Mozambique initiated a national REDD+ process in 2008.

    This study aims to synthesise the data, information and knowledge about conditions that will affect the planning and implementation of REDD+ policies and measurements in Mozambique. The...

  2. (pp. 1-24)

    Rudel (2007) emphasises several reasons for deforestation and degradation – from direct causes (such as expansion of small-scale agricultural areas and poverty) to indirect causes (such as state policies and business interests inside and outside the forest sector). Powerful economic incentives seem to be behind the most relevant causes; often, they act in combination (Lambin et al. 2001). These incentives include economic booms in forest harvesting; agricultural colonisation and an increasing national and international demand for non-food agricultural products (e.g. biofuel); agricultural subsidies and other policies; infrastructure policies (e.g. construction of new roads); and, possibly, weak governance of land and...

  3. (pp. 25-30)

    The institutional framework plays an important role in the definition of incentives to land use. This chapter reviews the most relevant institutional aspects for REDD+: the governance aspects in forest margins where forest cover changes are usually concentrated and the legal framework relevant to benefit sharing in Mozambique.

    This section explores the conditions of governance in areas where deforestation and forest degradation are concentrated. First, we analyse relevant aspects of global governance, followed by an overview of the conditions of governance in high-risk deforestation and forest degradation areas before discussing REDD+ implications.

    In the context of managing forest resources, Mozambique...

  4. (pp. 31-34)

    The political and economic context in which land-use decisions are made is important for a better understanding of the underlying causes of forest-cover change. Thus, this chapter focuses on the broader context in which the sources of deforestation and forest degradation operate. Specifically, it will describe the national economy (including the relevance of international markets) and national development priorities.

    After almost 30 years of armed conflict ended in 1992, the country has been undergoing major improvements in its socioeconomic development. Despite a stabilization of the poverty rates and inequality during the past five years, other indicators suggest improvements (Table 17)....

  5. (pp. 35-41)

    This chapter deals more specifically with the process of developing the national strategy for REDD+. First, it presents basic information on options for REDD+ under discussion, the political processes and the main actors involved and the main political events. It then presents an initial analysis of the main incentives and governance aspects relevant to REDD+ in Mozambique. Finally, it provides basic information about the consultation process of the R-PP (Readiness Preparation Proposal for REDD+).

    Mozambique has few policies and experiences specifically related to climate change. These include:

    The National Adaptation Program of Action for Climate Change (NAPA), established in 2007,...

  6. (pp. 42-46)

    Based on the previous chapters, this final chapter focuses on a preliminary analysis of the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of REDD+, as well as implications of potential policies and measures. First, it examines national policies and policy options to address the causes of forest-cover change. Then it offers a more detailed evaluation of the relevant aspects of REDD.

    Effective results or effectiveness depends on the degree to which REDD policies are directed towards the real causes of change in forest carbon. In Mozambique, the main causes tend to originate outside the forest sector, particularly from agriculture (shifting cultivation) and energy...