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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Peru: Drivers, agents and institutions

Hugo Che Piu
Mary Menton
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2014
Pages: 84
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-3)

    To mitigate global warming, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation should be reduced (IPCC 2007; Cordero 2008; De la Torre et al. 2009; Parker et al. 2009). These reductions are not only necessary but also highly cost effective (Stern 2006). Therefore, in the last five years there have been various global initiatives promoting compensation for countries that cooperate by reducing GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the basic idea of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks in developing countries) seems simple, it involves a broad set of approaches, activities...

  2. (pp. 4-20)

    There is much variation between the data offered by different publications and documents on the forest cover in Peru. At one extreme, the Ministry of Agriculture (Ministerio de Agricultura, MINAG) referred to 78.8 million ha of forest in 2011 (MINAG, 2011) while the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) referred to 67,992 million ha in 2010 (FAO 2011). The national report (FAO 2010) that provided the data for the FRA estimated the forest cover in 2010 on the basis of a 2000 forest map (MINAG 2000–LANDSAT, 1/250,000 scale) reduced by the estimated annual deforestation...

  3. (pp. 21-33)

    According to the study Identification of Synergies for Capacity Building between the Conventions on Climate Change, Biological Diversity, and Desertification and Drought (CONAM 2006), in Peru, international conventions about environmental issues are seen as a merely environmental issue managed by a small group of practitioners who generally work on environmental matters. The degree of implementation of each convention is limited, and coordination and harmonization of national objectives, strategies and plans are weak or nonexistent (MINAM 2010a), although there have been important advances such as the National Strategy on Climate Change, the National Strategy on Biological Diversity and the National Program...

  4. (pp. 34-40)

    According to FAO (2011), annual forest cover variation rates in South America have remained the same (−0.5%) between the 1990s and the 2000s, but in Peru, the rate doubled, moving from −0.1% to −0.2%. Peru is the only country in the region to have shown such a remarkable increase, which indicates that deforestation responds more to internal than to external factors. In this sense, forest deforestation and forest degradation in Peru are a consequence of the country’s development policies, especially in the last four decades. Weak institutionality in forest issues means that these policies are not framed within any national...

  5. (pp. 41-54)

    Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change, due to increasing threats, its weakness and high level of exposure, and its incipient adaptability (MINAM 2010a). This is why different initiatives to address climate change two decades ago. In 1993 Peru already had a National Commission on Climate Change (Comisión Nacional de Cambio Climático). In 2003, a National Strategy on Climate Change (Estrategia Nacional de Cambio Climático, ENCC) was adopted, and now this strategy is being updated. ENCC set out to reduce climate change impact through vulnerability and adaptation studies, and to control air pollution, including GHG emissions, through energy efficiency and...

  6. (pp. 55-62)

    Stern (2008) proposed analyzing the consistency of these policies through the revision of the effectiveness, efficiency and equity principles, in order to establish an evaluation framework for proposed global policies aimed at fighting climate change. In this way, it is possible to verify that global policies designed to fight climate change reduce GHG emissions at the required levels, to keep the risks associated with climate change within acceptable levels. These policies should be implemented in a cost-effective fashion, to reduce mitigation expenses, through new and transparent policies and fair sharing mechanisms. Poor countries are often the first and most affected...

  7. (pp. 63-63)

    Peru has been making progress on REDD+ readiness, with 41 pilot projects underway as of July 2012 (MINAM 2012). While pilot projects are already underway, with national and international funding, and even certification by international standards (VCS 2012), the national government is in the process of developing strategies for REDD+ and MRV with the leadership of MINAM.

    The success of REDD implementation requires the resolution of legal challenges and clarity about land management and tenure rights. The adoption of the Consultation Law represents a step forward for the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples and equity, but implementation of...