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Research Report

Bushmeat in the tri-frontier region of Brazil, Peru and Colombia: Demise or persistence?

Nathalie van Vliet
Maria Paula Quiceno Mesa
Daniel Cruz Antia
Carla Morsello
Cristina Adams
Flavia Mori
Blanca Yagüe
Sara Hernandez
Tamara Bonilla
Leady Tellez
Lindon Neves de Aquino
Jessica Moreno
Tatiana Schor
Michael De Oliveira Princi
Enio Haiden
Fernando Trujillo
Robert Nasi
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2014
Pages: 59
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. vi-vi)
    Brigitte Baptiste

    In our quest for sustainability in the use of natural resources, the question of bushmeat has been the source of heated and polarized debates. Overhunting, acting in synergies with other factors like habitat degradation or deforestation, is clearly one driver of extinction or extirpation. On the other hand the need for food, poverty alleviation, and the rights of local peoples, which may or may not hold specific knowledge and rules to handle a resource that thrives on their lands, are also at stake. This is not a biodiversity only crisis! The global debate about the forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals has...

  2. (pp. 1-4)

    Tropical forest resources are inextricably linked to people’s well-being in terms of food security, nutrition and health in a number of fundamental ways: forests maintain cultural identities expressed in traditional knowledge; local institutions and customary practices contribute to social resilience through the diversity of healthy foods, culturally valued products integral to local food systems and food sovereignty; and products that act occasionally as a ‘safety net’ or ‘buffer’ in times of shortages (de Merode et al. 2004; Shackleton and Shackleton 2004; Arnold et al. 2011; Termote et al. 2012). Until the mid- 90s, food consumption in tropical forests was still...

  3. (pp. 5-17)

    The study was carried out from August 2012 to December 2013 in the tri-frontier region of Colombia, Peru and Brazil, at eight localities (Figure 1). Two localities were in Colombia — Leticia (37,832 inhab.) and Puerto Nariño (6983 inhab.) (including Loretoyacu River communities and peri-urban communities near Leticia); three were in Peru — Caballococha (7885 inhab.), Santa Rosa and Atacuari River communities; and three were in Brazil — Tabatinga (52,272 inhab.), Benjamin Constant (33,411 inhab.) and Atalaia do Norte (15,153 inhab.) (DANE 2007; INEI 2008, 2011; IBGE 2010 ).

    Because of the geopolitical border, this region is subject to flows...

  4. (pp. 18-24)

    Our results show that less than 1% of the sampled children did not eat any type of animal protein the day before the interview (including those in indigenous communities, small towns, periurban areas and towns). As we move from rural indigenous communities to urban areas, we show a clear gradient characterized by an increased frequency of children having consumed poultry or eggs, beef and industrialized meats, and a decreased frequency of those having consumed fish and bushmeat the day before the interview (Figure 3). In urban areas, only 2% of the children ate bushmeat the day before the interview and...

  5. (pp. 25-29)

    The most important and longer trade routes providing markets with bushmeat are: 1) from the Javari River and communities along the Amazon River to the peri-urban areas of Leticia, Atalaia do Norte, Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga; 2) from Peruvian villages along the Atacuari and Amazon Rivers to Caballococha; and 3) two other bushmeat trade routes that occur locally: a) from communities along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu Rivers and in the wetlands of Tarapoto Lakes to Puerto Narino, and b) from the peri-urban areas to the towns of Leticia, Tabatinga, Atalia do Norte and Benjamin Constant (Figure 6).

    A total of...

  6. (pp. 30-33)

    The most representative taxa traded were mammals (60% of reports) and the rest were birds (26%) and reptiles (14%). In total, 485 individuals, equivalent to 13 tons were hunted in 60 days. Species diversity was equal to 27 species in Colombia and 17 species in Brazil. During the first period (high waters), hunters extracted a total of 5.24 tons of bushmeat. In the second period (low waters), we registered a considerable increase with a total of 7.75 tons harvested. We found that Colombian hunters mostly used bushmeat for personal consumption (74% of the biomass was selfconsumed), whereas Brazilian hunters sold...

  7. (pp. 34-37)

    The estimation of the total value of offtakes in the region amounted to USD 42,300 per month for the 55 hunters surveyed in the study area. If extrapolated to the 115 hunters identified as participating in the market chain, the total value of offtakes is about USD 88,500 per month, or about USD 1,062,000 per year. Regarding the economic value per country, 70% of the value of the total production of hunting activities goes to Brazil, 7% to Colombia and 24% to Peru. Table 9 shows the value of the total production harvested per hunted species by the 55 hunters...

  8. (pp. 38-42)

    The list of animals consumed by different family members in the year prior to the study comprised tortoises, deer, a wide variety of birds, and several monkey species. Insects such as beetle larvae or mojojoi (Rhynchophorus palmarum) and ants (Atta spp.) were frequently consumed. During the period of study, we registered the exchange and consumption of different animal species by some or all the members of the households (Table 12). From a total of 10 species (six mammals, two reptiles, two birds), bushmeat from Cuniculus paca appeared three times, and both Dasyprocta fuliginosa and Tayassu tajacu appeared twice. The only...

  9. (pp. 43-44)

    Our results call for better attention to be paid to the changes observed in diets in the Amazon and their potential health and nutritional consequences, particularly among indigenous peoples. Bushmeat and fish are no longer the main sources of meat for urban people (only 3% of the households consumed bushmeat and about 15% consumed fish the day before the interview). Instead, industrial chicken and canned meats are by far the main sources of protein consumed. In urban communities, fish is still the main source of protein, but industrial chicken, eggs and canned meats are becoming increasingly popular. Bushmeat is not...