This section begins with an account of the gendered division of labor and control associated with different crops. It then outlines land use and distribution in 2010–12 in a selection of hamlets both within and beyond the HD-DS smallholder transmigration zone, and identifies smallholder strategies and concerns regarding oil palm.
The main crops grown in the research area were rice, rubber and oil palm. Each had a distinct gender division of labor, and a different profile in terms of decision making and control of funds.
Customary land holders in the research area, both Malays and Dayaks, grew rice using...