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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Ethiopia: Drivers, agents and institutions

Melaku Bekele
Yemiru Tesfaye
Zerihun Mohammed
Solomon Zewdie
Yibeltal Tebikew
Maria Brockhaus
Habtemariam Kassa
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2015
Pages: 94
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. XI-XII)

    Located in the horn of Africa, Ethiopia covers a total area of 1.1 million km². The country had an estimated population of 95,045,679 in 2014, with an annual growth rate of 2.58% (Getachew 2008). Historically, smallholder-based traditional agriculture has been the mainstay of Ethiopia's economy. However, since 1992 the country’s government has introduced a variety of reforms aimed at improving macroeconomic stability, accelerating economic growth and reducing poverty. Consequently, Ethiopia has taken a development path that puts the alleviation of poverty and enhancement of its people’s livelihoods as its priority.

    According to the government's development plan (Plan for Accelerated and...

  2. (pp. 1-17)

    This chapter describes Ethiopia’s forest resources, and the recent trends and drivers of change in its forest cover. It focuses on the contextual conditions that affect the REDD+ policy environment of the country. Accordingly, discussion of the country’s forest carbon stocks and emission mitigation potential is also included.

    Descriptions of forest types are closely related to the definition of forest used and the classification scheme applied. However, two or more definitions and classification schemes are often present and applied by different users to the same context. As such, the current description of forest types is guided by the definitions and...

  3. (pp. 18-32)

    Forest governance refers to who makes decisions about forest resources and land, how the decisions are made and carried out, and who is accountable (De Zoysa and Inoue 2008). This rests in the context of the larger institution of property rights (formal and informal), and the legal frameworks that a country has developed and adopted through time to govern its resources. Therefore, forest governance is found nested in the broader land, forest and overall economic policies, and ideological orientation that a country tailors and follows. As Counsell (2009) noted, forest resource ownership and use rights across much of Africa are...

  4. (pp. 33-43)

    As discussed in Chapter 1, deforestation and forest degradation have a long history in Ethiopia, particularly in northern parts of the country (Pankhurst 1992). In the late 19th century, about 30% was said to be covered with forest whereas now, forest cover has significantly dwindled. The rate of deforestation is reported to be fast. For example, using observations, satellite image and map analyses, interviews, and literature studies, Dessie and Christianson (2008) estimated that the forest area of the Hawassa watershed in the southcentral Rift Valley region declined from about 40% at the turn of the 19th century to less than...

  5. (pp. 44-58)

    This chapter discusses the processes behind the formation of the REDD+ policy framework in Ethiopia. Because of the influence of international agreements and conventions on policymaking in Ethiopia, the first section presents some of these agreements and describes Ethiopia’s engagement in them. The subsequent sections examine REDD+ related policy processes, particularly the R-PP development process and the actors involved. The first section discusses the following questions: which climate change policies of Ethiopia are relevant to REDD+; what was the role of NAMAs in shaping the REDD+ policy framework formulations; and what are the lessons learned for REDD+ policy?

    Ethiopia has...

  6. (pp. 59-68)

    This chapter draws on findings in preceding chapters to make an overall evaluation of the context of Ethiopia for REDD+ implementation with respect to the 3Es. The first section examines national policies and strategies favoring and impeding the forestry sector, and the implications for REDD+ policy development and implementation. It then presents potential policy options to address deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ implementation) in Ethiopia. The second section provides a detailed evaluation of the relevant aspects of REDD+ employing the 3Es analytical framework. The 3Es refer to the following:

    Effectiveness: To what extent will the implementation of REDD+ polices and...

  7. (pp. 69-71)

    In the broader political and institutional context, the government of Ethiopia appears to be more committed today than ever before to addressing the challenges of climate change and dealing with the problems of deforestation and forest degradation. Evidently, the country has prioritized combating deforestation and reducing carbon emissions as one of its strategies to build a climate-resilient green economy. One of the mechanisms the government has planned to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is adopting and institutionalizing REDD+ as a potentially attractive and stable form of financing sustainable forest management. To this end, some policy instruments are already...