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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Tanzania: Drivers, agents and institutions

Demetrius Kweka
Rachel Carmenta
Maija Hyle
Irmeli Mustalahti
Therese Dokken
Maria Brockhaus
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2015
Pages: 79
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-1)

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is a rewards-based payment mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) designed to serve as an incentive to induce activities that mitigate forest-based contributions to climate change. A number of countries have started developing REDD+ strategies since its inception after the 13th COP in Bali in 2007. Tanzania is one among these and is currently involved in piloting REDD+ projects on the ground with the support of bilateral and multilateral donor agencies.

    In response to these developments in the forests and climate change agenda, CIFOR is conducting the...

  2. (pp. 2-13)

    Tanzania is one of the world’s ‘megadiverse’ countries and is endowed with a forest cover of around 34 million ha, covering 40% of the national territory (Figure 1; MNRT 2010). These natural forests² and woodlands³ have significant mitigation potential due to the carbon they store and sequester (Figure 2; see Appendix 2). However, Tanzanian forests are under pressure from drivers of deforestation⁴ and forest degradation⁵ (see section 2.2) and experienced one of the largest global annual net losses of forest cover between 1990–2010 (FAO 2010; Table 1). To demonstrate, if the average rate of forest loss experienced over the...

  3. (pp. 14-22)

    In any given REDD+ country, the forest management institutions, governance context and decentralization policies are likely to influence the outcome of REDD+ on the ground. The governance of forest resources occurs at multiple scales at levels. In the Tanzanian context, for example, governance structures are operating at the international, national, regional and local levels. We outline some of the major governance arrangement affecting the forest resource of Tanzania below.

    Land is the most contentious and politically charged issue in Tanzania, given global environmental change and population pressure, the situation is likely to remain contentious. Under the Forest Act (2002) and...

  4. (pp. 23-26)

    The dynamics of deforestation and degradation do not occur in isolation, rather they are embedded in the political, social and economic context and are influenced by factors occurring at multiple scales (from local to global). This section describes some of the past and present policies that have been in place at the national level, and considers their effect on deforestation and degradation in Tanzania.

    In 1961, Tanzania obtained independence and the state inherited the colonial system, in which deforestation was prohibited and local communities did not hold forest tenure (Zahabu et al. 2009). The state developed a number of strategies...

  5. (pp. 27-43)

    The key environmental policy in Tanzania is the National Environment Management Act No. 19 of 1983. This was the first policy to recommend an integrated national policy framework and legislation for sustainable maintenance, protection and exploitation of the environment and natural resources. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) was created following this Act and in response to the national need for such an institution to oversee environmental management issues. The NEMC also is charged with implementing the resolutions of the Stockholm Conference (1972) to establish and strengthen national environmental councils to advise governments and the international community on environmental issues....

  6. (pp. 44-48)

    The Tanzanian REDD+ Strategy document is expected to facilitate the delivery of an effective, efficient and equitable REDD+ program. Here we draw on recent experience in forest management in Tanzania and movements towards realizing REDD+ to speculate on how the 3E aspects (carbon-effectiveness, cost-efficiency and equity including co-benefits) in Tanzania’s REDD+ realities may develop in the future. We will first provide a very brief overview on how REDD+ policies and policy options have evolved, while then discussing 3E implications of particular major REDD+ policy aspects, such as participation in section 6.2.

    To realize effective progress with REDD+ policy design, research...

  7. (pp. 49-51)

    Tanzania has vast forest resources yet they are undergoing high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. The estimated deforestation rate is 370,000 ha per annum and this is concentrated in the de jure open access ‘general land’ or ‘unregistered land’ (NAFORMA 2014). The forest loss and forest degradation in Tanzania is due to several factors, notably small-scale farmers who clear forests for agriculture, largely because access to alternative agricultural technologies (such as mechanization, artificial inputs, etc.) does not exist. Other important drivers include timber extraction for charcoal production which is widespread and unsustainable. National markets for charcoal, especially close to...