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Research Report

Where Are the Poor and Where Are the Trees?: Targeting of poverty reduction and forest conservation in Vietnam

Daniel Müller
Michael Epprecht
William D. Sunderlin
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2006
Pages: 30
OPEN ACCESS
https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep02273
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-1)

    World leaders put poverty eradication and sustainable development at the heart of the global agenda through the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs were endorsed by 189 countries at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 (Poverty and Environment Initiative 2002). Increasing concerns about the linkages between poverty and environmental degradation are also evident in the first Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). This document analyzes options for enhancing the conservation of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2003; 2005). This paper assesses the relationship among environmental and welfare measures in Vietnam by highlighting the...

  2. (pp. 2-8)

    The official poverty measure employed by the General Statistical Office (GSO) of Vietnam is the poverty incidence, that is, the percentage of people living below the national poverty line. The Vietnamese poverty line is based on the expenditures required to purchase the equivalent of 2,100 Kcal per person per day using the food basket of households in the third expenditure quintile, plus a non-food allowance corresponding to the non-food expenditures of these households. The poverty line is equal to 1,789,871 Vietnamese Dong (VND) per person per year,¹ plus adjustments using price indices to compensate for differences in the cost of...

  3. (pp. 9-10)

    The forest data used in this study, representing the forest cover situation of 1999, were produced by the Vietnamese government’s Forest Inventory Program 286.⁶ The forest cover data are classified into six classes, of which four exhibit actual forest cover. The first three are natural forest categories (rich, medium, and poor) and the fourth is plantation forest. The fifth category is agricultural land and the sixth includes all other land cover representations including shrub, bare and grass land, water bodies and built-up areas. Other country-wide forest cover data of comparable quality and spatial resolution are not available for Vietnam. This...

  4. (pp. 11-15)

    We confine our analysis to the static relations of poverty measures and forest cover, both measured in 1999, as consistent forest cover data over time as well as spatially disaggregated time series of poverty incidence are not available. While this prevents us from contributing to the deforestation-poverty debate (e.g., see Gutman 2001; Geist and Lambin 2003; Shively 2004), we explore a unique combination of data to take an in-depth look at the spatial relationships between poverty and forest quality in Vietnam at one point in time.

    Areas with high poverty incidence are likely to have more forest in Vietnam (Minot...

  5. (pp. 16-17)

    The focus of this paper is the link between poverty and forest cover, motivated by the long-term policy objectives of the Vietnamese Development Goals. We assessed and compared the spatial distribution of forest and poverty in Vietnam using currently available official data sources. Poverty measures are matched to forest cover data in order to investigate the forest-poverty nexus at the commune level. Our approach is an attempt to contribute to better targeting of rural development investments that adequately integrate poverty reduction and environmental protection investments in rural areas. We also want to highlight the important implications of geographic variations of...