Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Research Report

An evaluation of the feasibility and benefits of forest partnerships to develop tree plantations:: case studies in the Philippines

Margaret M. Calderon
Ani Adiwinata Nawir
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2006
Pages: 86
  • Cite this Item

Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-3)

    The total forestland area of the Philippines is 15,882,756 ha, or about 53% of the country’s total land area of 30,000,000 ha (Forest Management Bureau, 1998). Areas classified as forestlands include public and permanent forests, as well as those that have been declared as forest reserves and reservations. The country’s old-growth forests are down to less than 700,000 ha, and continue to be threatened by illegal loggers and slash-and-burn farmers (locally called kaingineros).

    Between 1960 and 1990, the average reforestation rate was about 15,000 ha per year. This compares poorly to the average deforestation rate of 224,000 ha per year...

  2. (pp. 4-14)

    The Department of Environment and Natural Resources, particularly through its Forest Management Bureau, is the national agency that is mainly responsible for the development of tree plantations (and forestry concerns) in the Philippines (Figure 2.1). In the field, the Regional Environment and Natural Resources Office, Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, and Community Environment and Natural Resources Office implement its programs and projects. The Community Environment and Natural Resources Office are directly responsible for implementing the Community-Based Forest Management Program, Socialised Industrial Forest Management Program, and the Integrated Forest Management Program within its jurisdiction. It is tasked to identify potential...

  3. (pp. 15-26)

    The communities usually have their own system of claiming rights to land, and these are respected under the projects (Table 3.1). For ANAK-Jamindan PO, members base their land ownership claim on the area that was tilled by their forefathers. According to the assisting organisation, there is no conflict over land ownership among members because the system is recognized and respected.

    Prior to the arrival of migrants from the Visayas, the Lumads (Manobos, an indigenous people) claimed the area covered by Sta. Maria-Magkalape Association as their ancestral land. When the migrants arrived in 1972, they bought the rights from the Lumads...

  4. (pp. 27-44)

    There are provisions in the policies governing the two programs that promote their financial viability. For the Community-Based Forest Management Program, the people’s organisations are allowed to engage in livelihood activities other than tree farming, e.g. livestock production, agricultural crops, and rental of farm implements (Table 4.1).

    The people’s organisation can also utilize naturally growing or planted forest resources under its Resource Use Plan so it can generate start-up capital for its livelihood and other activities (Department of Environment and Natural Resources Administrative Order 2000-29). This is an important provision because the people’s organisations usually do not have funds when...

  5. (pp. 45-50)

    The processes involved in both programs (Community Based Forest Management Program and Industrial Forest Management Program) were structured following the standard formats prescribed by, and with the full participation of, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. However, each agreement has unique provisions that have been crafted with partners in mind, particularly with respect to allowable activities, exemption from forest and administrative charges, and transferability of the agreement.

    Both schemes provide for the interests of the participants. For the CBFMP, the people’s organisations are encouraged to grow agroforestry crops and engage in other livelihood activities to provide an alternative source...