Some generic methods and tools can be applied to ecosystems, social systems, or coupled socio-ecological system.
In opposition to advanced simulation models of impacts or vulnerability that are not designed to be used by policymakers or stakeholders, methods and tools exist for involving stakeholders (including policymakers) in an assessment process. For instance, cognitive mapping and causal loop diagrams allow building formal models, either qualitative or quantitative (Giupponi et al. 2008).
We describe below two generic methods and tools for vulnerability assessment involving stakeholders and experts. Other methods are described in Downing and Ziervogel (2004), such as brainstorming or checklists. Many...