As part of the methodology adopted for this study,⁸ we created 4 distinct categories to describe the types of frame:
1. The ‘diagnostic’ frame identifies who or what is to blame for a problem (related to REDD+), including who dismisses the reality of the problem altogether;
2. The ‘prognostic’ frame involves the articulation of a proposed solution to the problem, or at least a plan of attack, and the strategies that would be used to carry out the plan;
3. The ‘symptomatic’ frame identifies why an issue is a problem, often by discussing its potential consequences; and
4. The ‘motivational’ frame reveals moral and...