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Research Report

The context of REDD+ in Indonesia: Drivers, agents and institutions

Giorgio Budi Indrarto
Prayekti Murharjanti
Josi Khatarina
Irvan Pulungan
Feby Ivalerina
Justitia Rahman
Muhar Nala Prana
Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo
Efrian Muharrom
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2012
Pages: 132
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. xii-xii)

    REDD+ is a scheme developed to provide incentives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing degradation to forests and forest cover by adopting a sustainable forest management approach and increasing the roles of conservation and carbon stocks from forests in developing countries. The scheme was agreed at the 13th climate change conference (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties; COP 13) in Bali in December 2007. The Indonesian government’s commitment to implementing this scheme was made apparent in a statement on the international stage by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, who declared that Indonesia would reduce its...

  2. (pp. 1-15)

    Indonesia is one of the world’s most forested countries with a wide variety of forest types, including lowland, montane and seasonal forests. These forests are rich in biodiversity and, unsurprisingly, are an important livelihood source for a great number of people. Somewhere between 6 million and 30 million Indonesians are estimated to be directly dependent on forests (Sunderlin et al. 2000). As Indonesia is a developing country, the government is highly dependent on the forestry sector, as well as on forestry-related sectors such as agriculture, estate crops and mining, for the nation’s development. Consequently, during Indonesia’s history, its forests have...

  3. (pp. 16-39)

    Following the descriptions of deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia and their underlying causes in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 presents more in-depth discussions on aspects of forest management and arrangements relating to REDD+, such as land tenure and carbon issues.

    As a country with large expanses of tropical forest cover, Indonesia plays an active role in forestry-related international forums as well as bilateral and multilateral agreements. They include:

    United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF; see Rusli and Justianto 2007)


    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

    FLEG and...

  4. (pp. 40-49)

    The political economy of a country very much determines how that country manages its natural resources. Indonesia, as a developing country with abundant natural resources, has employed its natural riches, including forests, as a means of development. Consequently, discussions on deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia are inseparable from Indonesia’s political economic context. Where the previous chapters looked at the condition of forests and the causes of deforestation and forest degradation, this section discusses the political economic policies in Indonesia underlying these causes. To provide a complete picture, this section begins with an overview of Indonesia’s political economic policies in...

  5. (pp. 50-86)

    In the lead-up to UNFCCC COP 13 in Bali in 2007, Indonesia launched a National Action Plan (Rencana Aksi Nasional; RAN), which serves as a reference for all sectors in preparing policies related to climate change. The action plan covers activities for climate change adaptation and mitigation in several sectors (forestry, agriculture, land conversion and energy). As the action plan is a working document, the government will evaluate it continuously to improve its effectiveness (MoE 2007a: 18).

    However, the action plan is not the only policy document in the context of climate change in Indonesia. In December 2007, the Indonesian...

  6. (pp. 87-97)

    This chapter discusses the implications of the issues discussed in the previous chapters (institutional, political and economic aspects, and the REDD+ policy process) from the point of view of effectiveness, efficiency and equity (the ‘3E’). The first section sets out the national policies and their implications for 3E in REDD+, and examines which policies motivate/facilitate or reduce deforestation and forest degradation. The second section assesses REDD+ in relation to 3E.

    This section analyses several key national policies that influence 3E and notes those policies that support 3E.

    As discussed in Chapter 1, there are three main drivers of deforestation and...

  7. (pp. 98-101)

    This report reviews the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, describes the institutional and political economic environment within which REDD+ is being implemented in Indonesia, and documents the process of national REDD+ policy development during the period 2007–2011. As shown, several contextual challenges need to be addressed to provide enabling conditions for REDD+. Attending to these very same issues is critical if the governance of Indonesia’s forests is to be improved more broadly.

    The Government of Indonesia is committed at national and international levels to addressing the challenges of climate change and to using forest carbon offsets to consolidate...