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Research Report

Socio-economic considerations for land use planning: The case of Seram, Central Maluku

Nining Liswanti
Emily Fripp
Thomas Silaya
Marthina Tjoa
Yves Laumonier
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2013
Pages: 85
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-1)

    As part of the CoLUPSIA project¹ an extensive socio-economic study was conducted on Seram Island, Central Maluku. Understanding the socio-economic conditions, the drivers for land use change and economic development, along with cultural and social characteristics is essential to ensuring land use decisions are made that optimise the benefits, resulting in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes.

    The five pilot areas were chosen as areas that demonstrate different land use activities and bio-physical conditions. The socio-economic conditions and future challenges of these pilot areas have been assessed, with differences and similarities identified in this report. The five pilot areas are:...

  2. (pp. 2-4)

    This section aims to provide an introduction to the understanding of the social and economic dynamics of Seram in relation to the use and dependency of natural resources, giving an overview at both the district and pilot level.

    The Central Maluku district on Seram consists of ten sub-districts and 108 villages. In terms of population, Central Maluku has a total population of 434,113 people, with approximately 175,500 people living on Seram³, and a population density of about 15.2 inhabitants/km². The population across the pilot areas is relatively young and expected to grow in forthcoming years. Ninety three percent of the...

  3. (pp. 5-6)

    Across all five pilot areas the local communities must try to balance subsistence and resource needs with economic development through income generating activities such as the production of oil palm and cocoa. The growing population in all five pilots will continue to assert further demands on natural resources, which will increase the pressure on the limited land available for these same local communities. Land availability, or a lack of, and the issues of ownership and access are critical issues for all pilots on Seram. However, the five pilot areas do present varying bio-physical traits that are reflected in the socio-economic...

  4. (pp. 7-10)

    There are variations in the distribution of household income across all pilot areas (see Table 1 and Figure 3). The survey results show that there are higher frequencies of the “poorest” (lower quartile) households located in Pilot 4 and 5, whilst Pilots 1, 2 and 3 exhibit more even distributions of income across the households. The “richest” (upper quartile) households represent the highest frequencies of households in Pilot 1 and 2, with Pilot 3 also having the majority of households in the top half of income levels. Mean household income has a range of approximately a factor of 10 across...

  5. (pp. 11-12)

    In all pilot areas in Central Maluku, Seram, the issues around land use, access to land and forest resources, ownership and boundaries, the need for economic development (and access to markets), and population growth are collectively putting pressure on the limited resources of Seram, and in some cases resulting in conflict between users. These critical issues are presented in Map 3 and further discussed below.

    In all pilot areas, issues pertaining to access to and use of, land were evident. Evidence of land conflict between villages, and between villages and MNP managers, is prevalent across all pilots. There are many...

  6. (pp. 13-13)

    The dynamics between people and landscape are long established in Seram. However, economic development has introduced changes and brought new pressures which have influenced these interactions and are having far-reaching impacts on both people and place. These often delicate conditions and interactions have implications for now and the future for the viability of livelihoods (individuals, communities and the private sector) and the sustainability of natural resources.

    This report explored the social and economic dynamics of Seram in relation to the use and dependency of natural resources. For Seram, a mountainous island, this presents a number of challenges when considering the...