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Research Report

Socio-economic considerations for land-use planning: The case of Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan

Bayuni Shantiko
Emily Fripp
Tina Taufiqoh
Valentinus Heri
Yves Laumonier
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2013
Pages: 73
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-1)

    This report provides a summary of the main findings of the socio-economic survey conducted in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan as part of the CoLUPSIA project¹. The purpose of the study was to provide an understanding of the socio-economic conditions, the drivers for land-use change and economic development, and the cultural and social characteristics which are essential to ensuring that land-use decisions are taken to optimize economic, social and environmental outcomes.

    The survey comprised four pilot areas, chosen because they represented the spectrum of land-use activities and biophysical conditions found in the region. The pilot areas are:

    Pilot 1, to...

  2. (pp. 2-4)

    The total population of Kapuas Hulu is 218,804 people (BPS, 2009) and has a population density of approximately seven inhabitants per km². Putussibau Selatan sub-district, which includes the town of Putussibau (159 inhabitants/km²), has the highest population density and Embaloh Hulu sub-district has the lowest (1 inhabitants/km²). The population across Kapuas Hulu is relatively young and expected to grow in forthcoming years. The majority of the population, 60%, is of productive or working age (15 years to 64 years).

    Kapuas Hulu is ethnically and culturally diverse. In general terms, the population can be classified as Malay and Dayak. However, the...

  3. (pp. 5-6)

    The four pilot areas present varying biophysical traits that are reflected in the socio-economic activities. Across all four pilot areas, communities are faced with the land-use challenge of balancing the provision of subsistence food and resources with economic development through income generating activities such as the production of rubber and mining activities. All pilots are characterized by young and growing populations, which continue to assert further demands on the natural resources available to the communities.

    Pilot 1 is located within the boundaries of two national parks, where land is more restricted as communities face unclear boundaries with the Betung Kerihun...

  4. (pp. 7-12)

    Across the four pilot areas the total household income was clustered from the bottom to medium range of the income group as shown in Table 6, which indicates the quartile bands of income across all pilot areas. The table reveals that household income is disproportionately distributed, that is, 50% of household income is between Rp17–Rp35 million per year, whereas the top quartile range shows a major income gap between the lowest and the highest (Rp35–Rp182 million). In addition, there are a number of households whose income is very low, less than Rp17 million per year.

    Despite this range...

  5. (pp. 13-15)

    “Critical issues” are defined here as factors driving change in the way that land and natural resources are used, and that these factors may result in negative impacts not only environmentally, but also economically and socially. Critical issues should be given careful consideration in any land-use planning process, ensuring that the potential socio-economic conditions and potential future impacts are duly considered. The critical issues facing Kapuas Hulu as identified from the CoLUPSIA socio-economic survey work are discussed below.

    Population growth is an underlying critical issue for Kapuas Hulu. In all land-use decision making it is necessary to consider the future...

  6. (pp. 16-16)

    It is important to understand the relationship between socio-economic activities and the geophysical “mechanism” of the district. This is especially relevant in Kapuas Hulu with the Danau Sentarum National Park, surrounding peat lands, and the mountainous regions to the north, west and southwest, including the Betung Kerihun National Park. Kapuas Hulu is renowned for its unique natural resources and ecosystem services with far reaching impacts not only on West Kalimantan, but are also of national and international importance.

    This report explores the social and economic dynamics of Kapuas Hulu in relation to the use and dependency of natural resources. It...