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Research Report

Integrating adaptation and mitigation in climate change and land-use policies in Peru

Emilia Pramova
Monica Di Gregorio
Bruno Locatelli
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2015
Pages: 29
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-2)

    Two general strategies to address climate change are usually adopted in negotiations, policies and practice: mitigation – reducing emissions or enhancing the sequestration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) –and adaptation – responding to the impacts of climate change. These strategies have been discussed and treated separately as they have different aims and operate on different spatial and temporal scales; mitigation benefits global climatic conditions in the long-term, while adaptation provides both short- and long-term benefits at the local level (Swart and Raes 2007).

    Both adaptation and mitigation are important for Peru. The 69 million ha forest cover in the country provides...

  2. (pp. 3-4)

    National policies, elaborated in accordance with the country’s laws and regulations, define “what must be done” with related goals, objectives and timelines. Different national strategies guide the “how to” for achieving the objectives and goals of national policies. Strategies are temporary and subject to revision every few years (e.g. every 10 years). National plans and programs are action instruments that indicate the concrete steps to be undertaken in order to achieve the strategic objectives.

    There are a number of policies, strategies and action plans that aim to address climate change issues in Peru. Some have climate change as their main...

  3. (pp. 5-6)

    The research design includes the analysis of climate change and land-use related policy documents.

    The selection of documents focused on national level laws, regulations, strategies, plans and major programs from national government institutions with regulatory mandates, and cross-sectoral working groups or semi-independent bodies with a mandate to devise strategies or plans in the following sectors: climate change, forestry, agriculture and key environmental policy documents that include a focus on biodiversity and linkages to climate change, disaster risk reduction and management, and development with a focus on agriculture and forestry and land-use policies. In total, we coded 26 policy documents that...

  4. (pp. 7-11)

    Most of the text passages related to interactions between adaptation and mitigation, or between one of the two climate strategies and other objectives, fell under the “co-benefits” type and specifically under “mitigation with other co-benefits” type where we coded 116 text passages in 13 documents (Figure 1).

    The majority of the text passages under “mitigation with other co-benefits” were from forests and mitigation policies such as the Forest Investment Plan (41 references), FCPF Readiness Plan Proposal (14 references), Peru Emission Reductions Program Idea Note (ER-PIN FCPF; 13 references) and general climate change policy documents such as the PAAMCC (11 references)...

  5. (pp. 12-14)

    Peruvian climate change and land-use related policies showcase a number of examples of adaptation–mitigation interactions, mostly through an ecosystem or landscape approach. These approaches have potential for integrating adaptation, mitigation and other sectoral objectives, but central questions remain such as how will the different policies influence ecosystem services and development pathways across objectives and sectors, and how will trade-offs be managed. Perhaps before anything else, a sustainable knowledge and information generation and sharing system needs to be established, to aid policy impact evaluation and the assessment of policy coherence, the implementation of adaptive management, and ultimately to support integrative...

  6. (pp. 15-15)

    Climate change considerations are evident in the land-use related policy priorities of Peru and national strategies and plans encompass both adaptation and mitigation objectives. Frameworks have been developed for the integrated implementation of adaptation and mitigation in the new National Climate Change Strategy and draft National Forests and Climate Change Strategy. Different ministries also work together in planning, breaking the sectoral barrier to some extent, as evidenced by the joint collaboration of the environment and agriculture ministries in the design of the National Forests and Climate Change Strategy (which incorporates a forest landscape approach). How the different policies relate to...