Monitoring needs to assess implementation of standards and then verify whether results achieve overall sustainability objectives.
Monitoring needs to consider quality and quantity of forest goods and services.
Selection of indicators for monitoring should consider effectiveness, scientific relevance and costs.
Opportunity costs of avoided deforestation need to be monitored.
Monitoring and verification are key aspects of certification that should ensure that certified forests keep fulfilling the agreed principles and criteria (Nussbaum 2005). Monitoring provides evidence to buyers that certified goods and services are indeed obtained from forests managed according to agreed standards. Also, monitoring assists forest managers in the adaptive...