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Research Report

Policy progress with REDD+ and the promise of performance-based payments: A qualitative comparative analysis of 13 countries

Maria Brockhaus
Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki
Jenniver Sehring
Monica Di Gregorio
Samuel Assembe-Mvondo
Andrea Babon
Melaku Bekele
Maria Fernanda Gebara
Dil Bahadur Kahtri
Hermann Kambire
Felicien Kengoum
Demetrius Kweka
Mary Menton
Moira Moeliono
Naya Sharma Paudel
Thuy Thu Pham
Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo
Almeida Sitoe
Sven Wunder
Mathurin Zida
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2015
Pages: 41
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-2)

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has emerged as a promising climate change mitigation mechanism in tropical forest countries, supported by global initiatives such as the UN-REDD Programme and the World Bank-led Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) or through bilateral agreements. A number of countries are now at different phases in the process of realizing REDD+, from policy design and technical readiness activities to actual implementation of policies and measures, with an anticipated following phase in which results-based payments occur (Meridian Institute 2009). Overall progress has been much slower than...

  2. (pp. 3-3)

    The analysis forms part of the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS REDD+), led by the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), that is currently underway in 14 countries in South America, sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region (see Table 1), and builds on a QCA conducted in 2011–2012. Compared with the previous analysis, two countries were added: Ethiopia and Guyana. Ethiopia became part of the GCS REDD+ in 2013 and strengthens the valuable experience on REDD+ from the African continent. Guyana is not one of CIFOR’s core countries in the REDD+ study, but provides an interesting case, as...

  3. (pp. 4-5)

    This study applies a QCA, a method that enables systematic comparison of an intermediate number of case studies – usually applied to compare 5–100 cases. QCA can be a useful method to produce parsimonious and stringent research results from a multitude of in-depth case studies developed by numerous researchers. QCA can be used as a structuring tool that allows researchers to share understanding and produce coherent data, as well as a tool for understanding and explaining the presence or absence of a particular policy phenomenon (in our case, REDD+ policy progress) and the factors explaining this. Inferences from such...

  4. (pp. 6-13)

    This section introduces the specific factors selected, including the outcome definition, and provides the reader with the results of the assessments, the country context in which these assessments are embedded and the findings of the QCA.

    The objective of the analysis was to explain which factors contributed to the advanced establishment of comprehensive policies targeting transformational change in the REDD+ policy domain in some countries. We consider such transformational change a necessary step to the full implementation of phase 3 of REDD+, the achievement of resultsbased payments for delivered emission reductions and co-benefits. Thus, we define the outcome as ‘establishment...

  5. (pp. 14-18)

    In the first step, we analyze the institutional context of the 13 countries, using the following factors:

    pressure from shortage of forest resources (PRES)

    key features of effective forest legislation, policy and governance (EFF)

    already initiated policy change (CHA).

    The purpose of this part of the analysis is to identify those combinations of presence or absence of the above conditions that provide an outcome-enabling context, namely where the outcome ‘establishment of comprehensive policies targeting transformational change in the REDD+ policy domain’ (REDD) was achieved and assessed as present (1).

    Table 3 shows that each of the eight mathematically possible combinations...

  6. (pp. 19-20)

    The results of the longitudinal QCA indicate the relevance of multiple factor combinations stemming from a wide range of economic, social and political conditions when trying to understand what enables larger transformational change. We identified four different factor combinations that led to a positive outcome, and factors such as already initiated policy change and national ownership play an important role in some of these observed cases. However, the results of this study do come with a number of limitations. Some of these identified factor combinations still show contradictory results and not all possible combinations could be observed in order to...

  7. (pp. 21-21)

    Moving from a readiness phase through policy design and implementation toward performance-based payments for carbon and non-carbon benefits is challenging for most REDD+ countries, and numerous and often political-economic factors hinder such progress. Understanding which conditions and configurations enable REDD+ policy progress is therefore crucial, and can help countries to learn from the success of others and identify key areas for improvement. The analysis presented here aims to contribute toward this understanding.

    With REDD+ remaining high on the international agenda, it will be interesting to build on longitudinal studies such as the one presented here that allow for deeper insights...