There is a relative consensus that environmental scarcity may be a factor causing intra-state conflict. Whether it is either a necessary or a sufficient factor remains questionable. Alarmist theories predicting an apocalypse resulting from environmental degradation and overexploitation and from violence over increasingly scarce resources have mostly lost support.
Scarcity may not only lead to violent conflict; it may also be a catalyst for peace. To complicate things, the absence of scarcity - abundance - of resources - has also been argued to be a factor that may generate conflict.
There is a general consensus that political and economic factors...