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Research Report

The Netherlands and Sudan:: Dutch Policies and Interventions with respect to the Sudanese Civil War

M.V. van Baarsen
Copyright Date: Aug. 1, 2000
Published by: Clingendael Institute
Pages: 146

Table of Contents

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  1. (pp. 1-2)
  2. (pp. 3-5)
  3. (pp. 7-10)
  4. (pp. 11-12)
  5. (pp. 13-16)

    Since April 1998 the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ has conducted a policy-oriented research on conflict prognostication and conflict prevention in Third World countries, which is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The research attempts to link Dutch policy initiatives in the above fields to the particular situation of Third World states experiencing (post)conflict situations or impending conflict.

    There are two major research objectives. The research’s first objective is to draw up specific policy recommendations with regard to Dutch conflict-related interventions in the Third World. The second objective is to formulate a practical approach for Dutch foreign...

  6. (pp. 17-35)

    With approximately 2.5 million square kilometres, Sudan is the largest country in Africa. Stretching from about latitude 4 to 22 degrees north, it covers a large tract of the north-south axis of Africa north of the equator. Due to this geographic situation, internal differences within the northern part of the African continent are by and large mirrored by Sudan’s physical and ethno-cultural make-up. Natural conditions in Sudan range from a desert-like environment in the north to tropical rainforest in the south, with large savannah zones and marshlands in between. Ethno-cultural differences are just as great. Sudan’s almost 28 million inhabitants...

  7. (pp. 37-47)

    In section 1.2, conflict-related interventions were defined as direct interventions and indirect interventions. Direct interventions aim at affecting both the course and intensity of a future, current or past conflict with a view to safeguarding or eventually concluding peace. This type of intervention includes international peace conferences, economic or arms’ embargoes, the use of peace-keeping forces, facilitation of elections, disarmament, and reintegration of ex-soldiers. Indirect interventions aim at attenuating the negative impacts of a current or past conflict. This second type encompasses humanitarian aid, human rights and civil society projects, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. In Sudan during the 1989-1999 period, both...

  8. (pp. 49-67)

    This chapter first provides an introduction to the Dutch (conflict-related) involvement in Sudan, with emphasis on the post-1989 period. It explains the principles of the Dutch involvement, its objectives, the institutions through which Dutch aid has been channelled, and the Dutch aid performance in general. Major shifts in the Dutch Sudan policy will be elucidated. The chapter subsequently focuses on the Dutch role with regard to the IGAD(D) peace initiative (section 4.2) and OLS (section 4.3). The chapter concludes with a tentative assessment of the Dutch conflict-related interventions in Sudan (section 4.4). Special emphasis will again be put on the...

  9. (pp. 69-73)

    The north-south cleavage in Sudan continues to dominate the political agenda. The conflict is the result of a complex of different causes, but forced Islamization of the south and lack of political inclusiveness stand out prominently. Furthermore, the continuing internal war has politicized the issue of access to and distribution of natural resources, notably regarding water, pastures and arable land. Finally, the exploitation of oil has attracted a host of interested parties, and various rebel factions are currently fighting for control over the oil reserves in Unity State.

    During the course of the post-colonial period the internal conflict has resulted...

  10. (pp. 75-79)