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Research Report

Mapping Research on European Peace Missions

Maria Raquel Freire
Paula Duarte Lopes
Fernando Cavalcante
Markus Gauster
Livia Fay Lucianetti
Pascoal Santos Pereira
Valtteri Vuorisalo
Rafaela Rodrigues de Brito
Copyright Date: Nov. 1, 2010
Published by: Clingendael Institute
Pages: 113

Table of Contents

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  1. (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. (pp. [v]-[vi])
  3. (pp. 1-2)
    Xavier Zeebroek

    There has never been any dearth of literature on the European Union and its external actions. Books, special features and articles on this exceedingly complex and unique organisation abound.

    The novice and even the confirmed expert, who seek a better understanding of the challenges involved in a particular domain and an insight into how it works, frequently encounter an impressive profusion of written sources of an extremely variable quality and exasperating redundancy. How is it possible to make an informed choice from the thousands of pages displayed by the different search engines, when we submit a request for ‘EULEX’, which...

  4. (pp. 3-6)

    This paper aims at mapping research on European peace missions since 1992, starting with the early debates on European security and defence. The research builds on the thematic focuses defined by the COST Action ‘New Challenges of Peacekeeping and European Union’s Role in Multilateral Crisis Management’, which is structured around three main topics:

    a) European Union (EU) cooperation with other international organisations in crisis management;

    b) decisions and planning; and

    c) the evaluation of missions.

    The literature up until 1992 is analysed focusing on the early debates on this topic and highlighting the national perspectives and inter-institutional issues that were...

  5. (pp. 7-18)

    This section provides an overview of the early debates on European security and defence. The literature reviewed covers the period from the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union in 1992 to the EU Cologne European Council in 1999, in which the Western European Union (WEU) was subsumed within the European integration process regarding defence and security issues. The main issues identified while reviewing the literature include the contextualisation of developments concerning ESDP, national perspectives within the EU, and inter-institutional dynamics in Europe. It ends with a critical assessment of implementation challenges. It should be noted that the...

  6. (pp. 19-28)

    A plethora of actors, ranging from individuals and small non-governmental organisations to major international organisations (IOs), are involved in crisis management worldwide. Among such actors, international organisations have been actively involved in EU peace missions. Indeed, the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, according to the EU itself, lies in the United Nations Security Council (see, e.g., EU, 1999: para. 26; UN and EU, 2003). In this context, cooperation issues between the EU and other international organisations have been extensively addressed by scholars during the time span of this research.

    When addressing EU cooperation with other...

  7. (pp. 29-38)

    This section illustrates the main trends on which the academic community focuses when debating crisis management decision-making within ESDP. First, it looks at the political institutional framework for decision-making and at intergovernmental versus Communitarian issues in the ESDP decision-making process. Second, the role of political willingness is highlighted, as a fundamental factor in shaping and making decisions. Third, the developments in strategic culture are analysed since they constitute an important element of the ESDP decision-making framework. And finally, the debates concerned with EU (especially military) capability development are highlighted.

    The issue of decision-making was central in the reviewed literature on...

  8. (pp. 39-54)

    Despite the growing interest in ESDP (renamed CSDP – Common Security and Defence Policy – with the introduction of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009) in the last decade, along with the growth in the number of missions, the issue of scientific evaluation has not been central to the debate. The increasing complexity of CSDP has brought more pressure regarding the need to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the EU’s external engagements. For this reason it makes sense to assess the current standing of evaluation efforts made in the literature in past and ongoing CSDP missions. This should shed some...

  9. (pp. 55-56)

    This mapping exercise allowed for an extensive and intensive identification of references to European peace missions. The issues mapped provided a general overview of the main dynamics associated with European missions, both within the EU and in relation to other actors. This constitutes a solid basis to advance possible future research avenues, which include the changes which the Lisbon Treaty envisages. Some of the issues the Treaty raises are linked to decision-making and inter-institutional coordination as well as the EU’s relation with other actors, with clear potential impacts on ESDP/CSDP. The replacement of ‘European’ by ‘Common’ is such an example...

  10. (pp. 57-80)
  11. (pp. 81-104)
  12. (pp. 105-105)
  13. (pp. 106-107)