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Research Report

The Netherlands and its Whole of Government Approach on Fragile States Case study Sudan: Case study Sudan

Mariska van Beijnum
Luc van de Goor
Copyright Date: Aug. 1, 2006
Published by: Clingendael Institute
Pages: 50

Table of Contents

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  1. (pp. [i]-[i])
  2. (pp. [ii]-[ii])
  3. (pp. 1-2)

    1. The topic of fragile states is increasingly gaining ground on the international agenda. From an international geopolitical and security point of view, fragile states are considered to threaten regional stability and therewith international order. From a development cooperation perspective, there is a need to provide assistance as the governments of fragile states are not willing or not able to provide basic services to their people. From an economic trade point of view, fragile states receiving international assistance can be seen as emerging markets.

    2. The fact that the problems and challenges of fragile states are myriad, complicates efforts to formulate an...

  4. (pp. 3-18)

    6. The Netherlands Government recognised the need for coherence between the political, security, humanitarian, development, economic and administrative domains in the early 1990s with the 1993 policy paper A World of Dispute. This paper noted that in the post-Cold War era crises had become more complex and required a growing involvement of the international community on a continuum stretching from early warning as part of preventive diplomacy, to peacemaking, peacekeeping and rehabilitation and reconstruction as elements of peace-building. It was stated that complex emergencies in particular required an integrated deployment of the instruments of foreign, defence and development policy (including humanitarian...

  5. (pp. 19-28)

    62. Conflict has been part of most of Sudan’s history. Currently, Sudan is facing all phases of the conflict cycle: part is post-conflict (the South), part is facing conflict (Darfur) and part is on the verge of conflict (the East). Sudan’s problems are myriad, and cannot be dealt with easily. Part of the country is relatively well developed compared to national and regional standards, parts are relatively backward in terms of development, and yet other parts are totally underdeveloped. The overall scope of problems requires donors to focus on conflict prevention, stabilisation, peacebuilding and long-term development at the same time.


  6. (pp. 29-40)

    99. On the basis of the headquarters and field based practice, a number of observations can be made that are relevant for the Netherlands, and that, additionally, can provide input for the Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States.

    100. At a more general, conceptual level, the issue of fragile states traditionally stems from the Development Cooperation agenda. The problem of weak and fragile states manifested itself most prominently on the African continent, which predominantly was the domain of Development Cooperation. However, in the shifting geopolitical order as a result of the end of the Cold War, fragile states are considered...

  7. (pp. 41-42)
  8. (pp. 43-48)