Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Research Report

New Threats, New EU and NATO Responses

Margriet Drent
Rob Hendriks
Dick Zandee
Copyright Date: Jul. 1, 2015
Published by: Clingendael Institute
Pages: 60
  • Cite this Item

Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations Export to NoodleTools Export to RefWorks Export to EasyBib Export a RIS file (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...) Export a Text file (For BibTex)
  1. (pp. 7-8)

    The changes in Europe’s security environment raise important questions regarding the responses of the international organisations most concerned, the European Union and NATO. The Russian interference in Ukraine has fundamentally changed the situation at Europe’s eastern borders. Article 5, NATO’s original core task, has retaken its central position as confirmed at the Wales Summit. However, the hybrid nature of the new threats to the Alliance’s East question the value of purely military responses taken under the Readiness Action Plan such as the establishment of the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF). In addition, conflict has become the norm in...

  2. (pp. 9-23)

    The world is not in disorder but its order can be questioned.¹ The geostrategic power shift is continuing and the cooperation of the European Union and the United States with Russia and China remains constrained. The security environment is characterised by a wide variety of risks and challenges. The belt of instability now runs from Central America through Northern and sub-Sahara Africa and the larger Middle East (MENA) area to Eastern Europe. Conflicts occur across the belt, though the combination of driving factors might be different from place to place. In the MENA area religious and political sectarianism dominates. Some...

  3. (pp. 24-37)

    For more than two decades NATO has focused on crisis management operations, starting in the Balkans in the early nineties and culminating in the largest Allied operation ever in Afghanistan.68 The days of these single-sided issues are over. Putin’s intervention in Ukraine in 2014 has brought the Alliance back to its core business: territorial defence under article 5 of the Washington Treaty. The Wales Summit in September 2014 marked the turning point:

    (We are at) “a pivotal moment in Euro-Atlantic security. Russia’s aggressive actions against Ukraine have fundamentally challenged our vision of a Europe whole, free, and at peace. Growing...

  4. (pp. 38-48)

    “The security situation in the EU’s neighbourhood has deteriorated significantly” is the conclusion of the High Representative (HR) Federica Mogherini in her report ahead of the June 2015 European Council.105 The outline of the EU’s response to the new security challenges has become clearer throughout 2014 and 2015, although the ‘new European Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy’ will only see the light of day in June 2016. This new strategy will also assess the extent to which the EU’s instruments are still fit for purpose. The complex cross-border and cross-sectoral nature of the current security challenges makes the EU...

  5. (pp. 49-54)

    Nothing is as simple as it seems. In theory, the EU and NATO have complementary roles to play in strengthening international security. The EU primarily extends security and stability by enlarging membership of a its community based on law and cooperation across all sectors of government. NATO enlargement serves the same purpose, but the focus is on military matters with article 5 – collective defence of the NATO area – being the backbone. The Lisbon Treaty has a mutual assistance clause for cases of an attack on EU member states, but this clause has no practical impact as the overwhelming...

  6. (pp. 55-60)

    1. Europe is confronted with a multitude of risks and challenges to its security, characterised by growing complexity and involving an increasing number of state, non-state or semi-state actors. Instability and conflicts have come to Europe’s borders in the East and the South – thus the most pressing security challenges are geographically determined.

    2. Russia’s new activism poses a hybrid threat to Europe, which consists of a combination of military and non-military challenges. Moscow is using all available means, from covert military operations in Eastern Ukraine to ‘soft force’ of which state-run propaganda is the primary instrument.

    3. The main objective of the...