1. A substantial increase in defence budgets is most unlikely in the near future. There is only one alternative: eliminate military surpluses within Europe wherever possible and focus on European shortfalls and priority capabilities by deepening multinational defence cooperation across the board.
2. The sovereignty issue should not be an excuse for abstaining from participation in ‘pooling and sharing’.
3. Existing mechanisms like the European Air Transport Command (EATC) and the military earth observation Helios satellite cooperation show that successful models can be developed in which sovereignty of participating nations is covered satisfactory.
4. All three models of deeper defence cooperation (modular, integration, specialisation)...