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Research Report

E Pluribus Unum?: Military Integration in the European Union

Sven Biscop ed.
Copyright Date: Jun. 1, 2005
Published by: Egmont Institute
Pages: 58
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 5-12)
    Radek Khol

    Transformation of European armed forces is well underway, largely under longterm pressure from NATO and EU capability improvement schemes like the Prague Capability Commitments (PCC – earlier the DCI) and the Headline Goal 2010 (HG). This process is driven by requirements for guaranteed availability, rapid deployment and usability of European forces in various roles, across the entire spectrum of military missions – from humanitarian operations, to traditional peacekeeping, crisis management, and up to combat missions. This is hardly surprising, given the position of Europe in the world, the growing consensus on the EU’s role in security and defence activities carried...

  2. (pp. 13-20)
    Richard Gowan

    The first of these quotations comes from a 2005 defence of European power – the second was coined by Hubert Lyautey, France’s leading thinker on colonial warfare of the early 1900s. Yet, although the EU may be a post-colonial entity, Lyautey’s aperçu is increasingly echoed in its twenty-first century ‘way of war’. While the EU has accepted a long-term military commitment in Bosnia, its approach to military engagement in Africa is coming to rest on a doctrine of ‘rapid reaction’ by small, self-sufficient forces. It must be tested and adjusted if it is to succeed.

    Unlike those who wished ‘to...

  3. (pp. 21-28)
    Serge Van Camp

    Brussels 2015 – the EU, which is the world’s most dynamic and most integrated supranational institution has more than 30 Member States. The Union can match its economic weight with a coherent political voice backed up with civil and military capabilities. It can deploy battlegroups all over the world and the European Defence Agency (EDA) has created an effective European Defence Market...

    Only ten years before, in 2005, the lack of military capability in the EU was still a major weakness. There was massive overcapacity of the wrong types of forces and equipment. A significant shortfall in Member States’ financial...

  4. (pp. 29-38)
    Sven Biscop

    The whole process of enhancing European capabilities is geared to the Headline Goal (HG), which however concerns only part of the combined armed forces of the Member States, now totalling nearly 2 million – no vision as yet exists on the future of that total. Of course, Member States are conscious of the need to pursue the transformation of their armed forces from territorial defence to expeditionary operations and are taking important steps. This objective is also emphasized in the European Security Strategy, in which under the heading of ‘more capable’ foremost is the need to further ‘transform our militaries...

  5. (pp. 39-42)
    Julian Lindley-French

    How far should military integration go? Military integration should go as far as: (1) is needed to be militarily effective in this world; and (2) is in line with the emergence of the European polis. Thus there are environmental, functional and political dynamics driving Europe towards integration. Integration will one day be a fact; it will be a creeping integration driven as much by the need of Europeans to close the gap between an instable global environment, their obviously shared interests and values, and the role of their militaries as forces for good and forces for Europe, as by political...

  6. (pp. 43-52)
    Volker Heise

    The Headline Goal (HG), geared to provide the EU with the military capabilities needed to perform the full spectrum of Petersberg Tasks, has so far been fulfilled only to a limited extent, although the target date of 2003 has passed. Efforts to achieve this goal and the more far-reaching HG 2010 are continuing under the European Capabilities Action Plan (ECAP). A crucial factor impeding this process is the limited financial resources. Hence, Council conclusions and the draft Constitutional Treaty suggest intensifying military cooperation by seeking further approaches in order to make the best use of the available resources.

    To achieve...