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Research Report

EU security and defence: Core documents 2007

compiled by Catherine Glière
Copyright Date: Oct. 1, 2008
Pages: 527
OPEN ACCESS
https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep06974
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 11-12)
    Álvaro de Vasconcelos
  2. (pp. 13-20)

    The Council adopted the following conclusions:

    ‘1. The Council remains greatly concerned about the security, humanitarian and human rights situation in Darfur, which is clearly intolerable. It condemns the continuing ceasefire violations by the parties to the conflict and denounces in particular air strikes against civilian targets carried out by the Sudanese Air Force, such as the bombing of villages in North Darfur on 29 December and on 5 January. Stressing the urgent need for an immediate cessation of hostilities, the Council demands that all parties refrain from any form of violence against civilians and organisations providing humanitarian assistance. The...

  3. (pp. 21-25)

    In collaboration with the EU German Presidency, the EUISS organised a seminar which took place in Berlin on 29 January 2007, which was attended by over 130 senior national and European officials, as well as prominent experts. The aim of the meeting was to take stock of the achievements accomplished since the launch of ESDP, and define the challenges and priorities for the coming years. The address by Javier Solana is reproduced below.

    Your excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, let me first thank the German Presidency for organising this seminar. I can think of no better place for us to take...

  4. (pp. 26-28)

    Ladies and Gentlemen, I am very pleased to have the opportunity to speak and be with you today. The European Defence and Technological and Industrial Base is the defence theme for 2007. There are difficult decisions and significant changes that lie ahead and that need to be taken. Therefore, it is important that we are here, together, to agree on how we move forward in the right direction and at the right speed.

    In one month we will be celebrating the 50th anniversary of the signature of the Treaty of Rome. Its aim was economic integration. And it has been...

  5. (pp. 29-32)

    On 16 December 2006, following the breakdown of negotiations between Hamas and Fatah aimed at creating a new government of national unity, the President of the Palestinian Authority called for the government to be dissolved and for a general election to be held. Tensions ran high and these events were watched closely by the international community. On 8 February 2007, an agreement between the two rival factions was finally signed in Mecca. The Quartet met four times within two months and published the statements that are reproduced below.

    The Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, United States Secretary...

  6. (pp. 35-38)

    The Council adopted a decision amending decision 2004/197/CFSP on the mechanism for the financing of the common costs of European Union operations having military or defence implications (Athena mechanism) (16722/06).

    The new decision introduces a series of technical modifications and reviews the different categories of items to be borne by Athena. It also provides for the financing by Athena of EU military actions in support of third states or third organisations.

    The Council approved an EU training programme in the field of European security and defence policy for the years 2007 to 2009 (5565/1/07).

    The council adopted the following conclusions...

  7. (pp. 39-39)

    Following Korea’s announcement in October 2006 that it had carried out a nuclear test, the Union tried to convince Pyongyang to re-engage in dialogue and to respect the agreement on the denuclearistion of the Korean peninsula reached in September 2005. On 13 February, the participants in the Six Party Talks (China, North Korea, South Korea, the United States, Japan and Russia) reached a consensus on the implementation of this agreement. The statements issued by Javier Solana and by the presidency are reproduced below.

    Javier SOLANA, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), made the following comments...

  8. (pp. 40-42)

    The ability for the EU to deploy force packages at high readiness as a response to a crisis is an essential aspect of the ESDP and a key element of the EU’s military capabilities development and of the 2010 Headline Goal. On 1 January 2007, the EU Battlegroups achieved full operational capability. Two battlegroups are currently on standby. Germany, the Netherlands and Finland contribute one while France and Belgium form a second.

    The European Union is a global actor, ready to undertake its share of responsibility for global security. With the introduction of the Battlegroup Concept the Union has another...

  9. (pp. 43-55)

    The new government was confirmed on 9 February. However, more than 4 months after elections, there is still no Government at the Federation level and only 4 our of 10 cantons have governments.

    On police reform, at the end of December, the Police Reform Directorate submitted its report to the Council of Ministers. Since the previous Government failed to act on it, it is now up to the new Council of Ministers Chair Špiric to move the process forward. Unfortunately, the talks organised by Špiric and attended by all key political leaders yielded no concrete results so far.

    The Peace...

  10. (pp. 56-59)

    The Council adopted the following conclusions:

    ‘1. The Council remains deeply concerned about the continuing deterioration of the security situation and the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, as a consequence of the increasing violence by all parties to the conflict. The Council is particularly alarmed by Sudanese Armed Forces bombing near the Chadian border on 11 February, and militia attacks in North Darfur on 13 February resulting in 20 civilian deaths. It firmly condemns the continuing attacks on humanitarian aid workers, harassment targeting relief activities and ceasefire violations. It reminds all parties of their obligation to respect humanitarian law and of...

  11. (pp. 60-68)

    27. The challenges of climate change need to be tackled effectively and urgently. Recent studies on this subject have contributed to a growing awareness and knowledge of the long-term consequences, including the consequences for global economic development, and have stressed the need for decisive and immediate action. The European Council underlines the vital importance of achieving the strategic objective of limiting the global average temperature increase to not more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels.

    28. Given that energy production and use are the main sources for greenhouse gas emissions, an integrated approach to climate and energy policy is needed to realise this...

  12. (pp. 69-72)

    During the ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the Treaties of Rome on 25 March 2007, the Federal Chancellor, Angela Merkel, in her role as President of the European Council, the President of the European Parliament, Hans-Gert Pottering, and the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso, signed the Berlin Declaration. This document pays tribute to the progress achieved by the European Union over the last half-century. It also endorses the fundamental values that unite people within the EU and alludes to the main tasks that the Union must accomplish.

    For centuries Europe has been an idea, holding out...

  13. (pp. 73-74)

    In 2005, following an official request by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) government, the EU decided to establish an EU advisory and assistance mission for security reform in the DRC (EUSEC-DRC). The mission provides advice and assistance to the Congolese authorities in charge of security while ensuring the promotion of policies that are compatible with human rights and international humanitarian law, democratic standards, principles of good public management, transparency and observance of the rule of law.

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 2 May 2005 the Council adopted...

  14. (pp. 75-77)

    The paper analyses the conditions for an effective future EU role in Kosovo and provides an update on the state of transition and implementation preparations. EU coherence will be crucial during both the final stage of the status process and the implementation phase. Local ownership and partnership with the international community are key principles for the implementation of the Status settlement.

    Following a settlement of Kosovo’s future status, the authorities of Kosovo will face a double challenge: to take on competencies passed from UNMIK in accordance with the settlement; and to take the necessary steps to implement the substantive reforms...

  15. (pp. 78-80)

    The first units of the African Union (AU) mission to Somalia (AMISOM) undertaken to try and stabilise the country were deployed on 6 March 2007. On 7 March, the AU asked the European Union to provide it with experts on a temporary basis to assist the AMISOM military planning cell, located at Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The Political and Security Committee of the EU responded favourably to this request and proposed extending the EU civilian-military supporting action to the African Union mission in the Darfur region of Sudan.

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14...

  16. (pp. 81-94)

    The Council had an in-depth discussion on the situation in Sudan/Darfur in the presence of UN special envoy Jan Eliasson who briefed ministers on recent developments. After the discussion the Council adopted the following conclusions:

    ‘1. The Council remains deeply concerned about the appalling security situation in Darfur which continues to threaten the civilian population and obstructs efforts of humanitarian organisations to provide much needed assistance. Despite a decline in direct military confrontations, there has been no improvement with regard to the overall level of violence and lawlessness. The Council is particularly concerned by the recent series of unprovoked attacks...

  17. (pp. 95-96)

    The Chemical Weapons Convention, which came into force in April 1997, is a pillar of the international regime for the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. With its 182 Member States, it is today approaching universality. On the occasion of this tenth anniversary, the European Union called on all states who are not party to the Convention to ratify it or accede to it without delay and pledged to continue its diplomatic efforts to this end.

    29 April 2007 marks the 10th anniversary of the entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Chemical Weapons Convention is a...

  18. (pp. 97-116)

    We, the leaders of the European Union and the United States of America, met today in Washington to deepen our strategic partnership. This partnership is based on common values, in particular on the deeply shared conviction that peace, prosperity and human development depend upon the protection of individual liberty, human rights, the rule of law, economic freedom, energy security, environmental protection and the growth of strong, democratic societies.

    Our partnership has achieved much over the years, and today we have reviewed our work over the past year. Yet we continue to face major challenges, at home and abroad. Consistent with...

  19. (pp. 117-118)

    The International Compact with Iraq, launched in Charm el-Cheikh on 3 May 2007, is a five-year plan that aims to help Iraq on the path towards peace, sound governance and economic reconstruction, including a debt relief package that will reduce Iraq’s external debt by almost thirty billion dollars. The EU commended the Iraqi government for the ambitious commitments it has made with this Compact.

    The European Union warmly welcomes the launching of the International Compact with Iraq in Sharm El Sheikh on 3 May 2007. It reaffirms its strong support for the democratically-elected Government of Iraq and the Iraqi people...

  20. (pp. 119-130)

    The Council authorised the presidency, assisted by the high representative and in full association with the Commission, to open negotiations on a security agreement with the European Space Agency.

    The Council adopted a decision establishing a mechanism to administer the financing of the common costs of European Union operations having military or defence implications (Athena) (8211/07). The decision codifies the original decision of 23 February 2004 establishing Athena, notably in the light of subsequent amendments to that decision.

    The Council approved recommendations from the Political and Security Committee for the implementation of proposals for action to strengthen the EU’s partnership...

  21. (pp. 131-142)

    Planning for the ESDP police mission in Afghanistan is being completed. This mission will represent a key contribution to the establishment of a professional police service in Afghanistan and therefore to bringing Rule of Law and peace and stability to this country. It builds on important efforts that the international community, and many member States in particular, are already developing there. It will bring greater coherence and sense of purpose in addition to more means. The challenges are nevertheless considerable bearing in mind the state of policing arrangements in Afghanistan and the security situation. We will need patience and determination....

  22. (pp. 143-145)

    Decided on 10 April 2006, the sending of a planning team to Kosovo, with a mission to promote the development of an efficient judicial system and police force, took place in the context of the imminent adoption of a new status for this autonomous province and the withdrawal of the United Nations mission to Kosovo (UNMIK). In the absence of an international consensus on this process, the mandate of this team, already renewed for the first time on 11 December 2006, was further extended until 1 September 2007.

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article...

  23. (pp. 146-155)

    In the framework of its comprehensive approach towards Afghanistan, the EU decided to launch an EU Police mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan) in mid-June 2007. The mission, established for a period of at least 3 years, aims at contributing to the establishment of sustainable and effective civilian policing arrangements under Afghan ownership and in accordance with international standards.

    Having regard to the Treaty on the European Union, and in particular Article 14 and the third subparagraph of Article 25 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 16 November 2005, the Council agreed on the Joint Declaration ‘Committing to a new EU Afghan Partnership’...

  24. (pp. 156-167)

    Central Asia has a centuries-old tradition of bringing Europe and Asia together. It lies at a strategically important intersection between the two continents. The Central Asian States of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have known considerable evolution in political and economic transformation since attaining independence. They have established statehood, safeguarded multi-ethnic understanding and inter-religious communication. By joining the OSCE, they subscribed to the Organization’s values, standards and commitments. By signing the United Nations Millennium Declaration they set themselves ambitious goals.

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the time has come for a new partnership between the...

  25. (pp. 168-169)

    The EU military exercise MILEX 07 which was conducted from 7 June to 15 June 2007 was the second military exercise to be conducted by the EU. It is of particular significance as for the first time the new EU Operations Centre (EU OpsCentre) was activated. During his visit on 13 June, Javier Solana made comments which are reproduced on the following page.

    The European Union (EU) will conduct its second military exercise (MILEX 07)¹ from 7 June to 15 June 2007 in the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).

    MILEX 07 is a Command Post Exercise...

  26. (pp. 170-179)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 and Article 25, third paragraph, thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) Further to an official invitation from the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), on 9 December 2004 the Council adopted Joint Action 2004/847/CFSP on the European Union Police Mission in Kinshasa (DRC) regarding the Integrated Police Unit (EUPOL ‘Kinshasa’)(¹), as provided for in the Global and Inclusive Agreement on Transition in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, signed in Pretoria on 17 December 2002, and the Memorandum on the Army and Security of 29 June 2003...

  27. (pp. 180-187)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14, Article 25, third paragraph, and Article 28(3), first subparagraph thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) Further to an official invitation from the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), on 2 May 2005 the Council adopted Joint Action 2005/355/CFSP on the European Union mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)(¹) (EUSEC RD Congo), in particular in order to support the transition process in the DRC, including the formation of a restructured and integrated national army, as established...

  28. (pp. 188-188)

    Following is the text of the statement by the Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner – on their June 15 telephone call.

    In a telephone call on June 15, Quartet Principals shared their deep concern over the welfare and security of all Palestinians – especially those in Gaza, whose lives have been most seriously affected by the ongoing crisis.

    The Quartet expressed its support...

  29. (pp. 189-198)

    The Council adopted the following conclusions:

    ‘The Council reaffirmed the EU’s strong, long-term commitment to Afghanistan, as expressed by the European Council on 14 December 2006. The Afghanistan Compact and the Joint EU-Afghanistan Political Declaration remain a comprehensive framework for increasing EU engagement with Afghanistan.

    In the framework of this overall commitment in favour of stability and development in Afghanistan, the EU reaffirms its support for the Government of Afghanistan’s efforts to promote and extend the rule of law through development of the police, courts, prisons and the wider justice system, including its counter-narcotics efforts, to the regional and provincial...

  30. (pp. 199-225)

    8. The European Council agrees that, after two years of uncertainty over the Union’s treaty reform process, the time has come to resolve the issue and for the Union to move on. The period of reflection has provided the opportunity in the meantime for wide public debate and helped prepare the ground for a solution.

    9. Against this background, the European Council welcomes the report drawn up by the Presidency (doc.10659/07) following the mandate given to it in June 2006, and agrees that settling this issue quickly is a priority.

    10. To this end the European Council agrees to convene an Intergovernmental Conference...

  31. (pp. 226-234)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 12 December 2003, the European Council adopted the EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Chapter III of which contains a list of measures to combat such proliferation which need to be taken both within the EU and in third countries.

    (2) The European Union is actively implementing the EU Strategy and is giving effect to the measures listed in Chapter III thereof, in particular by releasing financial resources to support specific projects conducted by multilateral institutions.

    (3) The States...

  32. (pp. 235-238)

    1. Mr. José Sócrates, Prime Minister of Portugal, in his capacity as President of the European Council, assisted by the Secretary General/High Representative of the Council of the European Union Mr. Javier Solana, and Mr. José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission, and, Mr. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil held a meeting today in Lisbon. Ms. Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Commissioner for External Relations, Mr. Peter Mandelson, Commissioner for External Trade, Ambassador Celso Amorim, Minister of External Relations of Brazil and Mr. Luís Amado, Minister of State and Minister for Foreign Affairs of portugal,...

  33. (pp. 239-243)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 15 December 2005 the European Council adopted the European Union counter-terrorism strategy, which provided in particular for the development of cooperation with the European Union’s external partners in preventing and combating terrorism.

    (2) On 15 December 2005 the European Union adopted the strategy ‘The European Union and Africa: towards a strategic partnership’, in which the European Union undertook to support the efforts of the African states in the fight against terrorism.

    (3) On 14 September 2002 the African Union approved a Plan of...

  34. (pp. 244-245)

    The Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luis Amado, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner – met today in Portugal to discuss the situation in the Middle East. They were joined by Quartet Representative Tony Blair.

    The Quartet reaffirmed its commitment to bring about an end to the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and to work to lay the foundation for the establishment of an independent, democratic and viable Palestinian state living side by side...

  35. (pp. 246-252)

    The Council adopted a joint action amending and extending until 30 November 2007 the mandate of the planning team (EUPT Kosovo) for a possible EU mission in Kosovo in the framework of the European security and defence policy to deal with the rule of law and other areas (11411/07).

    Joint action 2006/304/CFSP is thus amended in order to take into account the need to recruit and to train core personnel for the possible operation before the adoption of a new United Nations Security Council resolution (UNSCR) to replace UNSCR 1244.

    In parallel, the EU is also preparing for a possible...

  36. (pp. 253-260)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 and Article 2(1) thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 12 December 2003, the European Council adopted a European Security Strategy which calls for an international order based on effective multilateralism. In a world of global threats, global markets and global media, the security and prosperity of the EU increasingly depend on an effective multilateral system. The development of a stronger international society, well functioning international institutions and a rule-based international order is an objective of the EU.

    (2) The European Security Strategy acknowledges the United Nations Charter as the...

  37. (pp. 261-261)

    After supporting the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement and the African Union Mission in Darfur (AMIS), the EU sustained the swift transition to the deployment of a UN/AU Hybrid Mission. On 1 August 2007, Javier Solana welcomed the unanimous adoption by the UN Security Council of resolution 1769 authorizing the Hybrid Mission. One week later, he welcomed the result of the Arusha meeting held from 3 to 6 August with representatives from the non-signatory movements on peace in Darfur.

    ‘This resolution is the result of intense and constructive cooperation, which I salute, between the United Nations and the African...

  38. (pp. 262-262)

    A second joint exercise to test the EU’s Emergency and Crisis Coordination Arrangements in Brussels (CCA) has been conducted successfully on Thursday 13 September and Friday 14 September.

    The main aim of the exercise was to test the arrangements to respond quickly and efficiently to a crisis at EU level and the capacity of the Council and the Commission to support jointly Member States’ crisis response efforts. The results confirmed that the arrangements are appropriate. The lessons learned will allow them to be improved further.

    The exercise was based on a totally fictitious scenario. It assumed a simultaneous terrorist attack...

  39. (pp. 263-265)

    The leaders of the European Union and Ukraine have met in Kiev today, at the annual EU-Ukraine Summit. The Summit was hosted by Mr Viktor Yushchenko, President of Ukraine, accompanied by Mr Arseniy Yatsenyuk, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. The EU was represented by Mr José Socrates, Prime Minister of Portugal, in his capacity as the President of the European Council, assisted by Secretary-General/High Representative Javier Solana, and by President of the European Commission Jose Manuel Durão Barroso. The President of the European Council was accompanied by Foreign Minister Luis Amado. The President of the Commission was accompanied by...

  40. (pp. 266-270)

    Early this year, the European Union celebrated its 50th birthday. In these 50 years, Europe has been transformed. A continent plagued by wars and confrontations has developed into a community of peace, democracy and prosperity. We have stopped killing each other and starting to work together.

    This did not happen by itself. We built strong institutions and a community of law to make the integration process withstand the ebb and flow of political moods and clashes of personalities. We have learned, the hard way, that peace and stability require common rules and institutions, non-stop negotiations and a sense of compromise....

  41. (pp. 271-272)

    The Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luis Amado, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner – met today in New York to discuss the situation in the Middle East. They were joined by Quartet Representative Tony Blair.

    The Quartet recognized the present opportunity for progress and the robust regional and international desire for peace in the Middle East. The Quartet expressed its strong support for the ongoing bilateral talks between Prime Minister...

  42. (pp. 273-275)

    European Union governments today agreed a series of specific steps and timetables for implementing a strategy to strengthen the Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB) by strengthening competition and cooperation in Europe and focusing more deliberately on the needs of the future.

    A meeting of the Steering Board of the European Defence Agency, held at the level of National Armaments Directors, reviewed a series of roadmaps for delivering the ground-breaking strategy agreed by defence ministers last May.

    ‘Ministers have recognised that individual Member States can no longer sustain their separate DTIBs on a purely national basis, and that we need...

  43. (pp. 276-276)

    The Contact Group has played a central role in efforts to achieve peace and stability in the Balkans for the past fifteen years. Since the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995, substantial progress has been achieved in Bosnia and Herzegovina to implement the terms of the agreement and on reforms necessary to ensure the stability and sustainability of the country.

    Contact Group Ministers are concerned, however, that over the past 18 months, progress on Dayton Implementation and reform has come to a halt, and extremist rhetoric has been on the rise. Ministers urge Bosnia and Herzegovina’s leaders to...

  44. (pp. 277-279)

    In light of remaining differences in the United Nations Security Council on Kosovo and subsequent agreement in the Contact Group to drive the process forward, it was decided on 1 August 2007 to engage in further negotiations between Pristina and Belgrade under the auspices of a EU/Russia/US Troika. The first Troika-facilitated direct talks between the parties were held on 28 September following the Ministerial Contact Group meeting in New York on 27 September 2007. The parties agreed on the ‘New York declaration’ reaffirming their willingness to engage seriously in these talks. Further meetings would then be held on five occasions:...

  45. (pp. 280-281)

    On 28 and 29 September, an informal meeting of the 27 European Defence Ministers took place at Evora. This meeting gave rise to two in-depth dialogues with the African Union, and with the five countries of the Western Mediterranean (Algeria, Libya, Marocco, Mauritania and Tunisia). Javier Solana’s remarks in the press conference held after the meeting are reproduced below.

    ‘It was a very good meeting this morning. I couldn’t be here yesterday because I was in New York [for the UN General Assembly’s ministerial week] talking about items that are discussed also here but in another perspective. There was talk...

  46. (pp. 282-285)

    On 4 October Javier Solana addressed the committee set up to draft a White Paper on defence and national security in France. He advocated that, in reponse to new international strategic challenges (globalisation, internal and external security, energy insecurity) the European Security and Defence Policy should be strengthened by the pooling of capacities, the coordination of responses to natural disasters and the sharing of intelligence.

    Mesdames, Messieurs,

    Intervenir devant la Commission voulue par le Président de la République et présidée par Jean-Claude Mallet est pour moi un honneur.

    Le but de l’exercice a été fixé par Nicolas Sarkozy : aborder...

  47. (pp. 286-291)

    Within the framework of the South Africa- European Union Strategic Partnership, the second Ministerial Troika was held in Tshwane, South Africa, on 10 October 2007. The meeting was cochaired by H.E Dr Nkosazana DLAMINI ZUMA, Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Africa, and H.E. Dr Luís AMADO, Minister of State and Foreign Affairs of Portugal for the EU Presidency.

    The South African delegation included H.E. Trevor MANUEL, Minister of Finance, H.E. Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK, Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, H.E. Mandisi MPAHLWA, Minister of Trade and Industry, H.E. Buyelwa SONJICA, Minister of Minerals and Energy, as well as H.E....

  48. (pp. 292-298)

    1. The twelfth ministerial Troika meeting between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union (EU) was held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on 11 October 2007 under the Co-Chairs of His Excellency Mr. Djibrill Yipènè Bassolé, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation of Burkina Faso and Chairman of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council, and His Excellency Mr. Joáo Gomes Cravinho, Portuguese Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, representing the current Chairman of the EU.

    2. The ECOWAS Troika further included the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ghana, Dr. Charles Y. Brimpong-Yeboah, MP, Minister...

  49. (pp. 299-300)
    Le Monde

    Il est normal que, dans ce type d’opérations, tous les pays de l’Union européenne ne participent pas de la même façon : certains peuvent envoyer des soldats, d’autres des policiers, d’autres encore des moyens logistiques ou des contributions financières. Il est évident que certains pays ont des forces armées plus disponibles et mieux préparées que d’autres. Les Britanniques, comme les Allemands, ont dit, depuis le début, qu’ils ne seraient pas engagés sur le terrain, mais cela ne veut pas dire qu’ils ne vont pas participer d’une autre manière.

    Il s’agit donc d’une répartition des tâches, même si elle n’est pas...

  50. (pp. 301-301)

    Following the first Troika-facilitated direct talks on the status of Kosovo between Belgrade and Pristina held on 28 September, the second round was held on 14 October 2007. The meeting provided an opportunity for the two sides to continue to develop their respective proposals and engage in discussions on the basis of these presentations.

    On October 14, delegations from Belgrade and Pristina continued their direct dialogue under Troika auspices to discuss Kosovo’s future status. The Troika facilitated several hours of direct face-to-face talks between the parties. After the direct dialogue, the Troika met separately with each side to discuss possible...

  51. (pp. 302-313)

    The Council adopted the following conclusions:

    ‘1. The Council remains seriously concerned about the human rights situation in Uzbekistan and recalls its position to that effect set out in previous Council Conclusions.

    2. The Council welcomes the increased willingness of the Uzbek authorities to engage in dialogue with the EU, and the positive developments which have occurred in EU-Uzbek relations in the course of this year: the holding of two rounds of experts’ talks on the Andijan events and the first round of a human rights dialogue between the EU and Uzbekistan; the engagement by the Uzbek authorities to continue this...

  52. (pp. 314-321)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14, the third subparagraph of Article 25 and Article 28(3) thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) In its Resolution 1706 (2006) concerning the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) reaffirmed its concern that the ongoing violence in Darfur might further negatively affect the rest of the Sudan as well as the region, in particular Chad and the Central African Republic, and stressed that regional security aspects must be addressed to achieve long lasting peace in Darfur. In its Resolution 1769 (2007), which authorised the...

  53. (pp. 322-323)

    En un an, l’Union européenne a renouvelé son regard sur l’Asie centrale et les cinq pays qui la composent. Notre engagement était ancien, puisque dès l’émergence de ces derniers sur la scène internationale, il y a 16 ans, plusieurs pays européens ont engagé un dialogue permanent avec eux. La Commission européenne a lancé plusieurs programmes substantiels dans des domaines essentiels pour la région : énergie, transports, sécurité, lutte contre la pauvreté. Mais ces initiatives, bien accueillies et menées dans la longue durée, étaient encore des premiers pas, qu’il fallait replacer dans une approche commune.

    C’est maintenant chose faite avec l’adoption...

  54. (pp. 324-325)

    Under Troika auspices delegations from Belgrade and Pristina continued their direct dialogue in Vienna on October 22 to discuss Kosovo’s future status.

    Pristina was represented by the Unity Team led by President Fatmir Sejdiu, Prime Minister Agim Ceku, President of the Assembly Kole Berisha, Hashim Thaci, Veton Surroi, Blerim Shala and Skender Hyseni.

    Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremic and the Minister for Kosovo Metohija Slobodan Samardzic led the Belgrade delegation. It also included Feodor Starcevic, Branislava Alendar, Aleksandar Simic, Gaso Kenezevic, Thomas Fleiner, Milos Jovanovic, Ivana Radic, Zoran Soljaga, Valdimir Jovicic, Marko Jaksic and Goran Bogdanovic.

    As part of its intention...

  55. (pp. 326-327)

    The twentieth EU-Russia Summit took place today in Mafra. It was a friendly and open meeting during which the leaders welcomed the ongoing work on the practical implementation of the Road Maps for the Four Common Spaces and discussed future perspectives for our relations.

    Notwithstanding all the progress achieved in EU-Russia relations in the last ten years (the current Partnership and Cooperation Agreement has been in force since 1997) it is clear for both Parties that further deepening of our strategic partnership would be mutually beneficial.

    The EU noted that this was the first Summit taking place after agreement on...

  56. (pp. 328-333)

    Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership met on 5 and 6 November 2007 in Lisbon, under the Presidency of H.E. Luis Amado, Foreign Minister of Portugal. This meeting offered an appropriate opportunity to assess the progress made during 2007 in implementing the Tampere programme which is derived from the 5-year Work Programme adopted in Barcelona in 2005, and to agree on the priorities for next year.

    Ministers reaffirm their commitment to pursue their efforts to realise the Barcelona Declaration objectives: to establish a common area of peace and stability, to create an area of shared prosperity and to...

  57. (pp. 334-337)

    Having regard to the Treaty on the European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 30 May 2007, the Council adopted Joint Action 2007/369/CFSP on establishment of the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan(¹).

    (2) On 18 June 2007, the Council approved Guidelines for Command and Control Structure for EU Civilian Operations in Crisis Management; these Guidelines notably provide that a Civilian Operation Commander will exercise command and control at strategic level for the planning and conduct of all civilian crisis management operations, under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee (PSC)...

  58. (pp. 338-354)

    The Council, in the presence of defence ministers, held its six-monthly review of developments in the ESDP. It adopted the following conclusions:

    1. Following the unanimous adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1778 (2007), which approved the deployment in Chad and the Central African Republic of a multidimensional presence and authorised the EU to provide the military element of it, the EU decided to take action. The operation EUFOR Tchad/RCA is taking place in the framework of a comprehensive EU effort to facilitate a long lasting solution to the conflict in Darfur and to promote regional stability.

    2. The deployment of EUFOR...

  59. (pp. 355-368)

    Since we last met, the Agency has been working in a productive manner; we have proceeded to set up the Agency even before the new Treaty arrangements are in place; now we have to make full use of our potential;

    Today’s decisions by the Steering Board enable us to this; I am delighted that ministers have agreed today to raise the budget to EUR 32 million for 2008, up EUR 10 million from this year. They also adopted the Agency’s work programme for 2008, a joint Strategy on Defence Research and Technology investment and a set of benchmarks to guide...

  60. (pp. 369-374)

    1. Civilian crisis management is an important tool under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) and the overall role of civilian crisis management in the European Union’s support for international peace and security continues to grow. ESDP has expanded its action far and wide (from Western Balkans to South Caucasus, Africa, the Middle East and Asia), and it has greatly diversified in the substance of operations (strengthening actions in Police and the wider Rule of Law sector, including Security Sector Reform (SSR), monitoring borders and peace agreements).

    2. As ESDP ventures further afield and diversifies in its tasks and missions, including...

  61. (pp. 375-380)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union and, in particular, Article 14 and the third subparagraph of Article 25 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 24 November 2005 the Council adopted Joint Action 2005/824/CFSP on the European Union Police Mission (EUPM) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)(¹). That Joint Action expires on 31 December 2007.

    (2) In a letter of invitation of 19 September 2007, the authorities of BiH invited the European Union to extend the EUPM in BiH.

    (3) In a letter of 22 October 2007 the Secretary-General/High Representative for the CFSP (SG/HR) sent a positive reply to the BiH authorities’...

  62. (pp. 381-386)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 12 December 2003, the European Council adopted the EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; Chapter III of the Strategy contains a list of measures to combat such proliferation which need to be taken both within the European Union and in third countries.

    (2) The European Union is actively implementing the Strategy and is giving effect to the measures listed in Chapter III thereof, in particular by releasing financial resources to support specific projects conducted by multilateral institutions, such as...

  63. (pp. 387-387)

    The U.S./EU/Russia negotiating Troika met in Brussels on November 20 with delegations from Kosovo and Serbia to discuss Kosovo’s future status. The Belgrade delegation was led by President Boris Tadic and Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica and included inter alia Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremic and Minister for Kosovo Slobodan Samardzic. The Pristina delegation was led by President Fatmir Sejdiu and included Prime Minister Agim Ceku, President of the Assembly Kole Berisha, Hashim Thaci, Veton Surroi, Blerim Shala and Skender Hyseni.

    The Troika facilitated several hours of direct dialogue between the parties and also met separately with each side to explore further...

  64. (pp. 388-392)

    Seul le prononcé fait foi

    I am delighted to speak, once again, at the Annual Conference of the European Union’s Institute for Security Studies. This annual conference is a special event. A key moment for people from the world of ideas and the world of politics to come together. And discuss the state of the European Union and the geopolitical landscape around us.

    Since May this year, the Institute has had a new Director, Álvaro de Vasconcelos. I am sure that in the years ahead the Institute will continue to play a central role in the broader debate on Europe’s...

  65. (pp. 393-396)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 7 March 2005, the Council adopted Joint Action 2005/190/CFSP on the European Union Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq, EUJUST LEX(¹).

    (2) On 25 September 2007, the Political and Security Committee (hereinafter referred to as ‘PSC’) agreed that EUJUST LEX should be extended for another 18 months after the expiry of the existing mandate on 31 December 2007, until 30 June 2009. This Joint Action should cover the first phase of this extension until 30 April 2008.

    (3) On 18 June 2007...

  66. (pp. 397-397)

    The Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luis Amado, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner – met today in Washington to discuss the situation in the Middle East ahead of the upcoming Annapolis Conference. They were joined by Quartet Representative Tony Blair.

    The Quartet expressed strong support for the November 27 Annapolis Conference. It welcomed the commitment of the Israeli and Palestinians leaders to launch bilateral negotiations toward the establishment of a...

  67. (pp. 398-402)

    I am very pleased to be here today. I would like to thank the efforts of President Bush and the determination of Secretary Rice, and to pay tribute to the courage of President Abbas and Prime Minister Olmert in achieving this moment of hope and opportunity.

    Agreement of the parties to launch final status negotiations with the aim of completing these by the end of 2008 is a remarkable achievement.

    This is an opportunity we cannot afford to miss. Now is the moment for all of us to step up and take our responsibilities. I have been very closely involved...

  68. (pp. 403-413)

    The Tenth China-EU Summit was held in Beijing on 28 November 2007. Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council of China attended the meeting on behalf of the People’s Republic of China. The EU was represented by the President of the European Council, Prime Minister Jose Socrates of the Portuguese Republic and the President of the European Commission, Mr. Jose Manuel Barroso.

    Leaders of the two sides had an overall review of the development of the bilateral relations since the establishment of the mechanism of China-EU Summit in 1998. They agreed that over the decade, China-EU relations have made a...

  69. (pp. 414-414)

    The EU/ U.S./Russia negotiating Troika has completed an intensive conference with the delegations from Belgrade and Pristina to discuss Kosovo’s status. The Troika brought together leaders of both sides in Baden, Austria, for nearly three days of intense talks. The Baden Conference marks the end of Troika-sponsored face to face negotiations.

    Over the course of the talks, the Troika urged the parties to consider a broad range of options for Kosovo’s status. The Troika explored together with both sides every reasonable status outcome for Kosovo to determine where there might be potential for a mutually-acceptable outcome.

    Regrettably, the parties were...

  70. (pp. 415-419)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 10 April 2006 the Council adopted Joint Action 2006/304/CFSP(¹).

    (2) On 16 October 2007, the Political and Security Committee (hereinafter referred to as ‘PSC’) agreed that EUPT Kosovo should be extended for four months after the expiry of the existing mandate on 30 November 2007, until 31 March 2008.

    (3) The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability within the Council Secretariat and EUPT Kosovo will continue technical preparations for a future ESDP Mission in Kosovo, including for informal and indicative force generation, for participation...

  71. (pp. 420-431)

    The eighth India-European Union Summit was held in Delhi on 30 November 2007. The Republic of India was represented by Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, External Affairs Minister, Shri Kamal Nath, Minister for Commerce and Industry, Shri M K Narayanan, National Security Adviser. The EU was represented by Mr José Sócrates, Prime Minister of Portugal, in his capacity as President of the European Council, by Mr José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, Mr Peter Mandelson, European Commissioner for Trade, and Mr João Gomes Cravinho, Portuguese Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation.

    The following...

  72. (pp. 432-435)

    Europe’s key task in the first half of this century, says Javier Solana, will be to help create a new system of global governance that can resolve the growing frictions in our increasingly interdependent world.

    When the European Union celebrated its 50th birthday earlier this year it also marked a halfcentury that has seen Europe transformed. This continent so long plagued by wars and confrontation has developed into a community of peace, democracy and prosperity. That we have stopped killing each other and starting to work together did not happen by itself. We built strong institutions and a community of...

  73. (pp. 436-448)

    The European Council, meeting at Lisbon on 18 and 19 October 2007, approved the new reform treaty, known as the ‘Treaty of Lisbon’, which replaces the draft Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe. This treaty introduces amendments both to the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) and to the treaty establishing the European Community (Treaty of Rome). The final text was published on 3 December. The new treaty was signed on 13 and 14 December 2007, in Lisbon, by the 27 heads of state and government. In order to come into force, it has to be ratified by the 27...

  74. (pp. 449-457)

    The European Defence Agency welcomes the efforts of the European Commission to further support the development of a true European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM). The Defence Package published today is complementary to the Agency’s own agenda for creating a more effective EDEM and a stronger European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB).

    The EDA is pleased that the Commission is taking into account the specific features of defence and security, since this cannot be treated as a fully commercial market.

    ‘Everyone is aware that sensitive issues of national sovereignty are involved in defence procurement and that has driven much of...

  75. (pp. 458-459)

    The EU border assistance mission to Moldova and Ukraine was established in December 2005 in response to a joint request from Kiev and Chisinau. The aim was to enable the two countries to monitor their borders more effectively and to improve the capacity of the Moldovan police and customs services. EUBAM plays a very important role, in particular in contributing to the stabilisation of the region.

    The EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine includes border police and customs officials from 20 EU Member States. This Mission, headed by Major-General Ferenc BANFI of Hungary, observes the situation on the...

  76. (pp. 460-463)

    Having regard to the Treaty on the European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 25 November 2005, the Council adopted Joint Action 2005/889/CFSP on establishing a European Union Border Assistance Mission for the Rafah Crossing Point (EU BAM Rafah)(¹).

    (2) On 18 June 2007, the Council approved Guidelines for Command and Control Structure for EU Civilian Operations in Crisis Management. These Guidelines notably provide that a Civilian Operation Commander will exercise command and control at strategic level for the planning and conduct of all civilian crisis management operations, under the political control and strategic direction of...

  77. (pp. 464-467)

    Having regard to the Treaty on the European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 14 November 2005, the Council adopted Joint Action 2005/797/CFSP on the European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories(¹) for a period of three years. The operational phase of EUPOL COPPS started on 1 January 2006.

    (2) On 18 June 2007, the Council approved Guidelines for Command and Control Structure for EU Civilian Operations in Crisis Management; these Guidelines notably provide that a Civilian Operation Commander will exercise command and control at strategic level for the planning and conduct of all civilian...

  78. (pp. 468-473)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Articles 14, 18(5) and 23(2) thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) The African Union (AU) has over the past years become a strategic continental actor and a key international partner of the European Union (EU).

    (2) The EU has on numerous occasions recognised the important role and achievements of the AU, including in the EU Strategy ‘EU and Africa: Towards a Strategic Partnership’ (hereinafter referred to as the EU Africa Strategy) adopted at the European Council on 15 and 16 December 2005.

    (3) On 14 and 15 December 2006, the European council...

  79. (pp. 474-486)

    At the EU-Africa Summit held on 8-9 December 2007 in Lisbon, the 53 African and 27 European countries gathered at the event adopted three documents: a strategic partnership, an action plan for 2008-2010 and a final declaration. Javier Solana made the statement below in response to the intervention by Mr Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe.

    ‘Prime Minister Socrates, President Kufuor, President Konaré, Your Excellencies,

    This summit is about the way Africa and Europe are going to address, as equal partners, the challenges that we face together. Our plenary yesterday dealt with some of these most pressing issues.

    This summit is...

  80. (pp. 487-517)

    14. The European Council welcomes the enlargement of the Schengen area and the abolition of controls at the internal borders of the Member States participating in the SISone4ALL project, as from 21 December 2007 for land and sea borders, and by 30 March 2008 for air borders, thus extending the effective free movement of persons.

    15. The European Council welcomes the establishment of the ‘European Day against the Death Penalty’ on 10 October each year.

    16. Further developing a comprehensive European migration policy complementing Member States’ policies remains a fundamental priority in order to meet the challenges and harness the opportunities which migration...

  81. (pp. 518-519)

    The Quartet Principals – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luis Amado, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner – met today in Paris to discuss the situation in the Middle East. They were joined by Quartet Representative Tony Blair.

    The Quartet lauded the success of the November 27 Annapolis Conference, which resulted in agreement to launch bilateral Israeli-Palestinian negotiations in order to conclude a peace treaty and demonstrated broad regional and international support for Israeli-Palestinian...

  82. (pp. 520-523)

    Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,

    Whereas:

    (1) On 12 June 2007, the Council adopted Joint Action 2007/405/CFSP on the European Union police mission undertaken in the framework of reform of the security sector (SSR) and its interface with the system of justice in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (EUPOL RD Congo)(¹) for an initial duration of one year. The mission was launched on 1 July 2007.

    (2) On 18 June 2007, the Council approved Guidelines for Command and Control Structure for EU Civilian Operations in Crisis Management. Those Guidelines provide,...