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Research Report

From Copenhagen to Brussels: European defence: core documents

compiled by Antonio Missiroli
Copyright Date: Dec. 1, 2003
Pages: 458
OPEN ACCESS
https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep06986
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 11-12)
    Antonio Missiroli

    With the present issue, the ‘European defence core documents’ annual collection reaches its fourth volume – stretching from Copenhagen, where the last European Council of 2002 was held, to Brussels, where the last one of 2003 took place. In actual fact, the Thessaloniki European Council of June 2003 was the last one to be hosted by the country holding the rotational EU presidency. From now on, all European Councils will take place in Brussels – thus crucially depriving this collection of a distinctive title for each issue.

    In retrospect, however, the 2003 title ‘from Copenhagen to Brussels’ tells more than...

  2. I ESDP

    • (pp. 13-15)

      With the onset of the police mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (see document I-29 in ‘From Laeken to Copenhagen’ and Joint Action 2002/210/CFSP), the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) inaugurates its operational dimension.

      Mr. President, Prime Minister, Friends and Colleagues

      Let me say what a great pleasure it is for me to welcome you all here today. I have been coming to Bosnia and Herzegovina numerous times in the course of the past decade - often under difficult and tragic circumstances. Today, however, the context is a different one. For me, as for many of you, this day is...

    • (pp. 16-21)

      On the occasion of the solemn celebrations for the 40th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and the Federal Republic of Germany, the leaders of the two countries issued a joint declaration that touched upon both their bilateral relations and many aspects of EU affairs, including the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

      1. The Elysée Treaty, signed forty years ago between France and the Federal Republic of Germany by General de Gaulle and Chancellor Adenauer, sealed the reconciliation between our two nations and laid the foundations of a lasting peace on the continent.

      2. France and Germany, founding members of...

    • (pp. 22-26)

      In 1963, France and Germany embarked on the path of security and defence cooperation of unequalled strength, the first step towards a common European policy in this sphere. The Elysée Treaty was expanded to include the creation of the Franco-German Defence and Security Council in 1988, whose 15th anniversary is today.

      A very dense network of relations between the two armies enabled the creation of the Franco-German brigade in 1988 and the European Corps in 1993, which proved themselves in crisis-management operations in the Balkans. The growing harmonization of doctrines led, inter alia, to the 1996 “Franco-German common security and...

    • (pp. 27-28)

      Shortly after the actual start of the EUPM in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the prospect of a second ESDP operation came to the fore – namely, a military operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, to be conducted in cooperation with NATO under the so-called ‘Berlin-plus— framework agreement reached in mid-December 2002 (see document I-28 in ‘From Laeken to Copenhagen’).

      “Following the letter from President Trajkovski inviting the European Union to take over the operation in FYROM, which is based on the UNSC resolution 1371, and in light of the European Council conclusions of Copenhagen, the Council adopted a Joint...

    • (pp. 29-35)

      Having regard to the Treaty on European Union and, in particular, Article 14, Article 25, third subparagraph, Article 26 and Article 28(3) thereof,

      Whereas:

      (1) The European Council has announced the readiness of the European Union to conduct a military operation to follow on the NATO operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, in order to further contribute to a stable, secure environment, to allow the FYROM Government to implement the Ohrid Framework Agreement.

      (2) Pursuant to the Ohrid Framework Agreement, the Union’s contribution is based upon a broad approach with activities to address the whole range of rule...

    • (pp. 36-39)

      Following on the tradition inaugurated with the St-Malo declaration of December 1998 – and in spite of their current sharp divisions over Iraq — France and Britain agreed to add new momentum to ESDP by emphasising the fledgling operational dimension and linking the EU capabilities goals to the most demanding military tasks. Last but not least, the two countries decided to cooperate on the construction of new aircraft carriers.

      France and the UK stood together to face the security challenges Europe confronted throughout the twentieth century. Today Europe must address new security challenges. France and the UK are determined to...

    • (pp. 40-45)

      Following on a tradition dating back to July 1999 (see document 11 in ‘From St-Malo to Nice’), the Anglo-Italian summit of February 2003 emphasised the capability dimension of European defence, put it in the context of both NATO and ESDP efforts, and dwelt also on the specific challenges deriving from the Mediterranean area.

      1. Italy and the UK have developed a solid and longstanding co-operation to meet the security challenges of the second half of the 20th century. We are determined to strengthen this co-operation in the 21st century by working together in the UN, the EU, NATO, G8, and OSCE....

    • (pp. 46-47)

      The Council heard a report from High Representative Solana on the question of the envisaged takeover by the EU of the international military presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina, following initial consultations on this issue, as mandated by the European Council in Copenhagen, with the BiH authorities, the High Representative for BiH/EU Special Representative, Paddy Ashdown, NATO and other international players. The European Council had indicated the Union’s willingness to lead a military operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina following SFOR. The report presented by the HR together with the Presidency underscores the need for the future mission to retain a robust...

    • (pp. 48-49)

      On the occasion of the formal handover of responsibility from NATO’s Operation Allied Harmony to the EU’s Operation Concordia in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Alliance’s Secretary General dwelt upon the key elements of the ‘Berlin-Plus’ arrangements between the EU and NATO that would be put in place for the first time in that contingency. The exchange of letters from December 2002 that sets the terms of the relevant ‘permanent arrangements’ is a classified document.

      Today, the North Atlantic Council has decided to terminate Operation Allied Harmony in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia¹ as of 31 March...

    • (pp. 50-52)

      “Following the conclusions of the European Council of Copenhagen and as requested in a letter by President Trajkovski, the Council has taken the decision to launch a military operation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on UNSCR 1371. This operation follows the NATO operation which, as decided by the North Atlantic Council, will end on 31 March. The European Union expressed its appreciation for the role played by the NATO military force in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia since its inception in August 2001.

      The Council adopted the Operation Plan (OPLAN) and agreed the Authorisation of Rules...

    • (pp. 53-69)

      Building on the experience gained in 2002 with the first EU military exercise (see document I-11 in ‘From Laeken to Copenhagen’), the relevant EU bodies elaborated a ‘concept’ to be used as a guideline for the future.

      1. The Council approved on 14 May 2001 the Exercise Policy of the European Union, which defines the political and operational framework for future EU exercise activities. The Exercise Policy identifies the EU requirements for and categories of exercises, and is the basis for the effective implementation of all EU exercises. It states that further details for the implementation will be provided in an...

    • (pp. 70-70)

      The paragraph reproduced below was to become the starting point for the subsequent work on the idea of an EU agency in the field of armaments and defence capabilities, which was then also being discussed in the European Convention.

      35. The European Council recognises the role that defence and security related R&D could play in promoting leading-edge technologies and thereby stimulate innovation and competitiveness; welcomes the Commission’s Communication “Towards an EU Defence Equipment Policy”; invites the Council to analyse the role of defence R&D procurement in the context of the overall R&D activities in the Union, including the possible creation by...

    • (pp. 71-71)

      “This is a good day for all of us: for the EU, for NATO, and, most importantly, for the people of your country.

      For NATO it is a good day, because a series of successful field operations have been concluded. The organisation can and should be proud of what it has achieved here, together with the authorities in Skopje, with the EU, the US and all other international partners.

      For the EU it is a good day. President Trajkovski and the Government have shown confidence in the European Union’s commitment to assist their country in assuring real, lasting peace and...

    • (pp. 72-73)

      The heads of state and government of the EU-15 gathered in Athens on the occasion of the official signature of the Accession Treaties for the ten new members and issued a series of joint statements. The ceremony was followed by a session of the ‘European Conference’ that also included all the other candidate countries.

      We the representatives of the citizens and States of the European Union meet today on this symbolic site, under the Acropolis, to celebrate an historic event: The signing of the Accession Treaty for Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic...

    • (pp. 74-75)

      The countries of the enlarged European Conference, with the participation of Russia, met at the Heads of State and Government level in Athens on April 17, 2003.

      The participating Heads of State and Government recognized that the countries and peoples of Europe have come a long way towards forging a community of values based on democracy, the rule of law and the respect for fundamental rights and freedoms. Moving towards our common values has enabled us to create bonds of trust between countries and peoples and to gradually establish and expand prosperity and security. The current enlargement of the European...

    • (pp. 76-80)

      This meeting received enormous political and media attention in that it gathered the four countries that had resisted the US-led military intervention in Iraq most vocally. It occurred while the conflict was still on and in the midst of the final phase of the European Convention, where the possibility of enforcing ‘enhanced cooperation’ in defence matters (still ruled out by the Nice Treaty) was being discussed. In this context, the proposal of setting up autonomous military headquarters at Tervuren, near Brussels, was to become a central issue in the European and transatlantic debate of the following months.

      With enlargement and...

    • (pp. 81-84)

      Thank you Mr Mc Donough for those kind words of introduction. May I thank also Gonzalo de Las Heras, Noel Lateef and everyone at the Foreign Policy Association for giving me this opportunity to speak to you.

      It is a privilege and a pleasure to be your guest this evening. I share the great esteem in which this Association is held. Your record in the field of public education on world affairs is without rival. And it is a pleasure to be among so many good friends, not least Colin Powell.

      I was intrigued to read in the recently published...

    • (pp. 85-94)

      The document from which extracts are reproduced below is evidence of a renewed emphasis on military capabilities and also the creation of an EU agency in the field of armaments – building on the general recommendation made by the European Council on 20-21 March (see document I-10.b in this same collection).

      1. The Council welcomed continued work on the development of military and civilian capabilities for crisis management within the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) and in support of the objectives of the Common Foreign Security Policy (CFSP).

      2. The Council welcomed the successful start of operation. CONCORDIA....

    • (pp. 95-96)

      First, because today we have a better picture of European capabilities and their shortfalls.

      Secondly because we have a better understanding of what these shortfalls mean in terms of constraints and risks for EU-led operations if they are not remedied.

      Thirdly, the European Capability Action Plan has produced a sound basis for Member States to do deliver additional capabilities.

      Fourthly, the implementation phase of these proposals has already started, with five project groups launched so far.

      But it is hardly the time to rest on our laurels. A lot more remains to be done. It needs to be done as...

    • (pp. 97-98)

      The Foreign Ministers of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and of the European Union met in Madrid today to take stock of NATO-EU relations.

      Since the joint NATO-EU Declaration of 16 December 2002, we have made unprecedented progress in developing our strategic partnership as agreed between the two organisations. Most importantly, in March we concluded the full set of agreements providing for ready access by the EU to NATO’s collective capabilities and assets for EU-led operations. These « Berlin-Plus » arrangements are essential to effective partnership and will enable the strengthening of the European Security and Defence Policy.

      Berlin Plus...

    • (pp. 99-105)

      In late May 2003, the UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, contacted EU authorities to test the ground for a European military contribution to preserving peace in and around Bunia, in the north-eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in order to allow the previous UN mission in the area to reorganise. Within a few days, the Union agreed to set up a contingent to be deployed in the region. Operation Artemis, led by France as ‘framework nation’ under an explicit UNSC mandate, was thus to become the first autonomous military operation conducted by the EU.

      Having regard to the Treaty...

    • (pp. 106-109)

      The document reproduced below summarises the main elements of the new EU initiative in the field of non-proliferation and counter-proliferation. The initiative was taken in the wake of the intra-European and transatlantic dispute over Iraq as a means to address a controversial and hitherto neglected issue. The general aim was to find common ground with the United States while shaping a shared European approach.

      On 14 April 2003 the Council instructed the Secretary General/High Representative, in association with the Commission, and the Political and Security Committee, to pursue work on proliferation of weapons of mass destruction with a view to...

    • (pp. 110-118)

      This action plan is intended to provide an initial work programme to allow a practical implementation of the basic principles. It is not exhaustive. Building an EU strategy for non proliferation of WMD will take some time and, as a result, it might appear worthwhile to add further actions to this plan. This action plan is a first base to start without delay and will have to be adapted in the course of its implementation.

      The action plan complements and is consistent with the list of concrete measures adopted by the Council on 15 April 2002 in implementing the targeted...

    • (pp. 119-141)

      The main emphasis of the document reproduced below lies on external policies – both towards the Balkan region and vis-à-vis the wider ‘neighbourhood’ of the EU. Though not strictly related to ESDP, they are relevant for both the CFSP at large and the common policies against terrorism and proliferation.

      Presidency Report on ESDP The Council approved a draft Presidency Report on ESDP with a view to its submission to the European Council for endorsement.

      Report on the fight against terrorism (including CFSP/ESDP) The Council approved a draft Presidency Report to the European Council on EU external action in the fight...

    • (pp. 142-152)

      54. Our Union is committed to facing up to our responsibilities, guaranteeing a secure Europe and a better world. To this end, we will contribute relentlessly to strengthening and reshaping the institutions of global governance, regional cooperation and expanding the reach of international law. We will support conflict prevention, promote justice, sustainable development, help secure peace and defend stability in our region and globally. The European Council therefore welcomes the recommendations submitted by SG/HR Javier Solana for an overall strategy in the field of foreign and security policy, an initiative conceived at the informal Foreign Ministers’ meeting at Kastellorizo. It tasks...

    • (pp. 153-159)

      1. In line with the mandate defined by the European Council in Copenhagen, the Presidency submits this progress report on ESDP.

      2. In presenting this report, the Presidency has noted that Denmark has drawn attention to Protocol No. 5 on Denmark’s position annexed to the Treaty of Amsterdam.

      3. In the framework of the EU’s Operational Capability, the EU has launched three crisis management operations. In the Western Balkans, the first EU-led civilian crisis management operation, the police mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUPM) and the first EU-led military operation “CONCORDIA”, in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (fYROM), with recourse to NATO’s assets and...

    • (pp. 160-169)

      The initial push for drafting the document reproduced below came at an informal meeting of EU foreign ministers held in early May on the Greek island of Castellorizo. On that occasion, the High Representative for CFSP was tasked with the preparation of a paper intended to outline a common threat-based European approach to global security – as a means, also, to address issues that were already central in the US approach. The European Council welcomed this first draft of the document by Javier Solana and requested a final version to be ready for the following European Council in December.

      Europe...

    • (pp. 170-177)

      The document reproduced below is the Presidency’s third annual progress report on this subject.

      This report supplements the first progress report submitted to the European Council at Seville (doc. 9991/02) and covers actions taken in implementation of the EU Programme for Violent Conflicts during the period July 2002 to June 2003. Throughout this period, conflict prevention lay at the heart of EU external action, both in its regional policies and in the further development of instruments. This report reviews specific initiatives undertaken in the context of conflict prevention as well as progress in the areas of activity set out in...

    • (pp. 178-181)

      We the Heads of State or Government of the member States of the European Union, the acceding and candidate states, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, as potential candidates, and the President of the European Commission, in the presence of the President of the European Parliament, the Secretary General of the Council/High Representative, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in Kosovo, the Special Co-ordinator of the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe and the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, meeting in Thessaloniki, agreed today on the following:

      1. We all share...

    • (pp. 182-184)

      1. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems constitutes a major threat to international peace and security. The threat is compounded by the interest of terrorists in acquiring WMD. This would undermine the foundations of international order. We pledge to use all means available to avert WMD proliferation and the calamities that would follow.

      We will work together to strengthen the international system of treaties and regimes against the spread of WMD. This implies the development of new regimes, as appropriate, and reinforcement of existing regimes. We will pursue the goal of universal membership of relevant multilateral treaties...

    • (pp. 185-193)

      J’ai grand plaisir à vous retrouver ici pour cette deuxième année, pour la conférence annuelle de notre Institut. Je voudrais à cette occasion remercier Nicole Gnesotto pour l’organisation de cette conférence, mais aussi pour le travail qu’effectue l’Institut d’études de sécurité tout au long de l’année.

      Nous vivons des temps peu ordinaires. La scène internationale a connu ces derniers mois des événements hors du commun. En même temps, l’Union européenne subit des changements profonds, porteurs d’une dynamique nouvelle. Sa politique étrangère et sa politique de sécurité et de défense communes doivent s’adapter à cette double évolution.

      Face à ce défi...

    • (pp. 194-199)

      The experience being gained with Operation Artemis reinforced the attention paid by the Union to the African region and its interest in cooperating with the UN, as the document reproduced in extracts below shows.

      “The Council welcomes the timely conclusion of the Review of Operation CONCORDIA. In reply to the request of the President of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and in the light of NATO’s agreement to the continued availability of NATO’s assets and capabilities for Operation CONCORDIA, the Council agreed to extend the Operation under the previous terms for a brief additional period until 15 December 2003...

    • (pp. 200-203)

      In the light of the experience being gained with Operation Concordia, the EU and NATO deepened their cooperation and dialogue on crisis management in the Western Balkans region. Already in 2002, at any rate, the Union had manifested its interest in taking over from NATO – within the framework of the ‘Berlin-plus’ arrangements – the follow-on operation to SFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

      1. NATO and the EU share a common vision for the future of the Western Balkans: selfsustaining stability based on democratic and effective government structures and a viable free market economy, leading to further rapprochement towards European and...

    • (pp. 204-207)

      On the occasion of a meeting of EU defence ministers, the United Kingdom circulated a non-paper aimed at taking forward the discussion on the future of ESDP. In particular, the paper focused on relations with NATO and the modalities for setting up headquarters for military operations. As such, it was also part of the broader European debate triggered by the 29 April joint initiative of France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg.

      The UK welcomes the Presidency’s initiative in convening this meeting and we welcome the emphasis in the 30 July non-paper on strengthening capabilities. In the UK view, the key components...

    • (pp. 208-210)

      The document reproduced below represents the first major step in setting up the Ad hoc Preparation Group to prepare the creation of an intergovernmental agency in the field of defence capabilities development, research, acquisition and armaments.

      Having regard to Article 19(3) of the Council Rules of Procedure,

      (1) The European Council meeting at Thessaloniki on 19 and 20 June 2003 invited the Presidency, in association with the Secretary-General/High Representative, to take the work forward on the creation of an intergovernmental agency within the EU in the field of defence capabilities development, research, acquisition and armaments, taking into account the work...

    • (pp. 211-216)

      C’est un réel plaisir de vous rencontrer de nouveau. Et je tiens d’emblée à vous remercier de cette invitation. Chacun de nous est bien conscient de l’importance de l’enjeu qui nous occupe aujourd’hui : la définition d’une Stratégie de Sécurité européenne fut le premier point que nous avons évoqué lors du Gymnich, ce week-end à Riva del Garda, avec les Ministres des Affaires étrangères. Dans quelques jours, à New York, l’Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies sera elle aussi l’occasion d’échanges sur ce thème avec cette fois nos grands partenaires

      Entre ces deux temps forts - le Gymnich et l’Assemblée Générale...

    • (pp. 217-218)

      The document reproduced below represented a further step in the ongoing cooperation between the two organisations. Far from being a final product, it aimed at summarising the state of play and prospects in the wake especially of the experiences gained with EUPM in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which had been terminated only a few weeks earlier.

      The Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union welcome the existing co-operation between the United Nations and the European Union in the area of civilian and military crisis management,...

    • (pp. 219-221)

      As a follow-up to Operation Concordia, which was about to terminate, the government of FYROM and the EU agreed to set up a police operation (Proxima) aimed at further consolidating the peaceful coexistence of the different ethnic communities in the country.

      “In the framework of an overall enhanced EU role in policing in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Council today decided to establish a Police Mission (EUPOL) in the country, entitled ‘Proxima’. This decision follows an invitation from Prime Minister Crvenkovski. The mission will support the development of an efficient and professional police service and promote European standards...

    • (pp. 222-230)

      Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14, Article 25, third paragraph, Article 26 and Article 28(3) thereof,

      Whereas:

      (1) Pursuant to the Ohrid Framework Agreement, the Union’s contribution is based upon a broad approach with activities to address the whole range of rule of law aspects, including institution building programmes and police activities which should be mutually supportive and reinforcing. The activities of the Union, supported, inter alia, by the Community’s institution building programmes under the CARDS Regulation, will contribute to the overall peace implementation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as well...

    • (pp. 231-234)

      We are entering a crucial phase in European capabilities development. In 2003, we can identify the forthcoming confluence of:

      enlargement,

      work on the European Constitution,

      continuation of the capabilities development process beyond the 2003 HELSINKI Headline Goal,

      the EU’s inaugural experiences in live operations,

      work on a European Security Strategy.

      I fully support the call for the Union to develop a strategic culture that favours early, rapid and, where necessary, robust intervention. Concerning the development of a new capabilities objective this means that we should consider the following imperatives:

      to identify our common strategic objectives, challenges and threats, building on...

    • (pp. 235-249)

      having regard to the Council’s Annual Report for 2002 (7038/2003 - C5-0423/2003),

      having regard to the Interinstitutional Agreement of 6 May 1999 between the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on budgetary discipline and improvement of the budgetary procedure, point H, paragraph 40,

      having regard to Article 21 of the EU Treaty,

      having regard to its resolution of 26 September 2002 on the progress achieved in the implementation of the common foreign and security policy,

      having regard to its resolution of 10 April 2003 on the European security and defence architecture - priorities and deficiencies,

      having regard to its...

    • (pp. 250-253)

      For the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), 2003 will be a landmark year.

      It marks the achievement of the Helsinki Headline Goal, a comprehensive agreement with NATO, the conduct of the first three EU-led operations and preparations for a fourth mission. It is also the start of the work on the European Defence Agency that will be established in the coming months as foreseen by the Thessaloniki European Council.

      More general factors also contribute to strengthening ESDP at various levels: i.a. preparation for enlargement and the work on the European Constitution; the enhancement of the capabilities development process beyond...

    • (pp. 254-255)

      The St. Petersburg Summit has reaffirmed the strategic partnership between the European Union and the Russian Federation, based on shared values and objectives. We agreed to reinforce our co-operation in political and security matters with a view to creating a space of co-operation in the field of external security.

      We recognise with satisfaction the progress made in our bilateral political dialogue and cooperation on political and security matters. The European Union and the Russian Federation have maintained close consultations and co-operation on issues related to international security and stability in Europe and beyond. They have also implemented concrete co-operation in...

    • (pp. 256-268)

      1. The Council welcomed the progress on the work concerning the development of a European Security Strategy, based on the document “A Secure Europe in a Better World”, presented by HR/SG Solana, and seminars held in Rome, Paris, and Stockholm in the course of the year. Ministers underlined the importance of the Strategy being adopted by the European Council in December 2003.

      2. The Council agreed on conclusions for creating an Agency in the field of defence capabilities, development, research, acquisition and armaments.

      3. The Council reviewed progress on the European Security and Defence Policy, underlining that the year 2003 has witnessed remarkable...

    • (pp. 269-272)

      Similarly to what had been done with the UN, the EU finalised a blueprint for relations with the OSCE in fields of common interest. An additional factor in strengthening collaboration was the possibility of joint initiatives in Moldova and the South Caucasus.

      1. The Council recognises that, although different in structure and purpose, the EU and the OSCE share the same principles and values, as well as important responsibilities in conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation, the promotion of democracy and human rights and institution building. All EU Member States are also OSCE participating states; from 2004 EU Member States...

    • (pp. 273-277)

      We can be satisfied with the progress made in the field of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in many ways. This year witnessed remarkable progress, in particular as regards the planning and implementation of three operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM), the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (“Concordia”) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (“Artemis”). The development in the near future of a fourth operation in fYROM (Police Mission “Proxima”) further illustrates our positive progress in the ESDP field.

      The relationship between the European Union and NATO has also been one of our main achievements in this area,...

    • (pp. 278-279)

      Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, participated today in the launch of the active phase of the Joint EU-NATO crisis management exercise “CME/CMX 03” (19-25 November 2003).

      On this occasion, he underlined the importance of this exercise to test EU decisionmaking procedures as well as arrangements for consultation and co-operation between the EU and NATO at times of crisis. “This joint exercise is another important step in the close and concrete co-operation between the EU and NATO. Our relations are making progress, not just in the political field, but also in the practice of...

    • (pp. 280-282)

      The United Kingdom and France have together been in the forefront of the development of the European Security and Defence Policy. Our two countries remain committed to the continued development of the EU’s capacity to take decisions and act in crisis management. We welcome the considerable progress that has been made since our last Summit at Le Touquet in February:

      In 2003 the European Union has concluded the full set of NATO/EU agreements organisations. We intend to make full use of these arrangements, so furthering the relationship established in this framework.

      The EU has launched its first civilian ESDP mission,...

    • (pp. 283-284)

      The paper reproduced below was the result of separate informal negotiations between French, German and British officials on the possible modalities for setting up dedicated headquarters for EUled military operations – to be conducted with or without NATO assistance and cooperation. Its contents clearly represent a compromise between initially different approaches — as shown by documents I-13 and I-27 in this same collection. Precisely because of this, probably, this paper would be taken over in its entirety by the Italian EU Presidency and submitted to the EU-15 for final approval (see document I-45.d in this same collection).

      Building on the...

    • (pp. 285-286)

      The Foreign Ministers of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and of the European Union met in Brussels today to take stock of enhanced NATO-EU relations.

      Since our last meeting, held in Madrid on 3 June 2003, we have made further progress in developing the strategic partnership between the two organisations. The conclusion of the « Berlin Plus » arrangements, providing for ready access by the EU to NATO’s collective capabilities and assets, allowed the launch on 31 March of the EU-led Operation Concordia. In September NATO extended its support to this operation which is due to end on 15 December...

    • (pp. 287-291)

      The Council adopted the following conclusions:

      “1. The Council reaffirms the deeply rooted commitment of the European Union to make effective multilateralism a central element of its external action, with at its heart a strong UN, as also reflected in the current work related to the European Security Strategy. The EU is firmly determined to play a major role within the UN system in line with its objective of developing a stronger international community, international institutions which function well and international relations based on the rule of law and respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms. The EU reaffirms...

    • (pp. 292-298)

      54.The European Council unequivocally condemns all recent terrorist attacks, including in Istanbul, which killed or injured many people of different nationalities and faiths. The Union reiterates its solidarity with Turkey and reaffirms its determination to defeat terrorism together with others in the international community and to provide a common response to this global threat.

      55.The European Council remains firmly committed to the clear objective of two States, Israel and a viable and democratic Palestinian State, living side by side in peace and security, in the framework of a comprehensive peace in the Middle East, as laid out in the Road...

    • (pp. 299-310)

      1. In line with the mandate defined by the European Council at Thessaloniki, the Presidency submits this progress report on ESDP.

      2. In presenting this report, the Presidency has noted that Denmark has drawn attention to Protocol No. 5 on Denmark’s position annexed to the Treaty of Amsterdam.

      3. The past year has seen significant developments in ESDP, particularly in terms of Crisis Management Operations. The EU has already launched three ESDP operations (two military and one police).

      Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo was successfully launched and terminated. All the objectives defined were achieved: security conditions were improved allowing for...

    • (pp. 311-321)

      The document reproduced below constitutes the final step along the way opened by the Action Plan drafted in early June (see document I-19.b in this same collection).

      1. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery such as ballistic missiles are a growing threat to international peace and security. While the international treaty regimes and export controls arrangements have slowed the spread of WMD and delivery systems, a number of states have sought or are seeking to develop such weapons. The risk that terrorists will acquire chemical, biological, radiological or fissile materials and their means of delivery...

    • (pp. 322-323)

      The text reproduced below is exactly the same as that prepared and presented jointly by France, Germany and the UK at the end of November (see document I-42 in this same collection). It was approved as such by the European Council.

      Building on the experience of EU civilian and military operations in 2003 and on the discussions on these two issues between the UK, France and Germany, this paper sets out how the collective capability of the EU can be strengthened, including the ability to plan and run certain operations, and describes how consideration of the options involved would take...

    • (pp. 324-333)

      The document reproduced below represents the final version of the Security Strategy presented by the EU High Representative at the European Council in Thessaloniki in June (see document I-21c in this same collection). Since then, a sequence of three dedicated seminars - coordinated by the EU Institute for Security Studies and involving experts and officials from the EU-25 and also third countries – and informal consultations with the member states made it possible to refine and adjust certain parts and formulations of the original text, yet without altering its core message.

      Europe has never been so prosperous, so secure nor...

    • (pp. 334-338)

      This day marks the end of Operation Concordia, and at the same time the end of the international military presence in the field following the crisis in 2001. It is a good day, a day of achievement, for all of us here.

      First and foremost, it is a good day for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It is a day that signifies that the process towards stabilisation and normalisation has reached a point where the country is in a position to wish good bye to foreign troops. A day to look back, and to realise that the process based...

  3. II Iraq

    • (pp. 339-341)

      The statements reproduced below, released on the occasion of the official celebrations for the 40th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty, can be considered as the starting point of the intra-European squabble over Iraq that was to characterise the following months.It is worth recalling that at the beginning of January Germany (along with Spain) had joined the UN Security Council as a non-permanent member.

      Q - Monsieur le Président, Europe de la paix, Europe de la défense, Europe de politique étrangère. Il se trouve qu’il y a une crise importante en ce moment avec celle de l’Iraq, la France est aussi...

    • (pp. 342-342)

      The extract reproduced below represents a first major attempt by the EU member states to converge on a common position over Iraq.

      Ministers also discussed the situation regarding Iraq. The Council adopted the following conclusions on Iraq:

      “The Council, deeply concerned about the situation in Iraq, reaffirms that its goal remains the effective and complete disarmament of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction. The Council fully supports the efforts of the UN to ensure full and immediate compliance by Iraq with all relevant resolutions of the Security Council, in particular with UNSCR 1441 of 8 November 2002. The resolution gives an...

    • (pp. 343-344)

      The document reproduced below was published simultaneously by a wide array of European and American newspapers three days after the European Council. As such, it was not the result of any consultation among the EU-15 but of a separate initiative. It would soon be labelled an act of ‘op-ed diplomacy’.

      The real bond between the United States and Europe is the values we share: democracy, individual freedom, human rights and the Rule of Law. These values crossed the Atlantic with those who sailed from Europe to help create the USA. Today they are under greater threat than ever.

      The attacks...

    • (pp. 345-345)

      The joint statement reproduced below received less media attention than the ‘Letter of the Eight’ but was widely quoted in the European and transatlantic debate. The ‘Vilnius Group’ collected those European countries that had requested to become NATO members: some would join the Alliance in May 2004, as decided at the Prague sumit of November 2002 (see document I-26 in ‘From Laeken to Copenhagen’).

      Earlier today, the United States presented compelling evidence to the United Nations Security Council detailing Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction programs, its actives efforts to deceive UN inspectors, and its links to international terrorism.

      Our countries...

    • (pp. 346-346)

      The joint declaration reproduced below can also be considered as part of the intra-European crisis over Iraq. All the signatories were at the time members of the UN Security Council.

      Russia, Germany and France, in close coordination, reaffirm that the disarmament of Iraq, in accordance with the relevant UN resolutions since UNSCR 687, is the common aim of the international community, and that it must be pursued to its conclusion within the shortest possible period.

      There is a debate over the means to achieve this. This debate must continue in the spirit of friendship and respect that characterizes our relations...

    • (pp. 347-347)

      This joint statement was released in the context of the debate inside NATO over whether to provide military assistance to Turkey in anticipation of a possible aggression from neighbouring Iraq. Along with Luxembourg, the three countries – all NATO as well as EU members – opposed the activation of Art.4 of the Washington Treaty in the Atlantic Council in the absence of an explicit UN resolution allowing military action. Later on, however, Belgium and Germany would not oppose measures in that direction taken by the Alliance’s Military Committee, where France does not sit.

      Belgium, France and Germany reaffirm their determination...

    • (pp. 348-349)

      In the wake of the contrasting views expressed by some member states on the Iraq crisis, the Greek EU Presidency convened an extraordinary meeting of the European Council in order to try and limit the damage and find common ground among the EU-15.

      The European Council held an extraordinary meeting to discuss the crisis over Iraq. Its members also met with the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and the President of the European Parliament, Pat Cox.

      We reaffirm the conclusions of the GAERC of 27 January and the terms of the public demarche of 4 February 2003 to Iraq which...

    • (pp. 350-350)

      I would like to say: I regret a peaceful solution of the Iraqi crisis has not been possible. Therefore, we have entered a second phase, a phase of war.

      In wartime people suffer. We have to make all the efforts to make this phase of war as short as possible, to minimise the suffering of the people who have nothing to do in this war. This is absolutely fundamental. The European Union will make an appeal in this direction.

      I expect leaders of the European Union, during this European Council, to find common positions on several issues.

      First, the most...

    • (pp. 351-352)

      This ordinary European Council took place the day after military operations in Iraq had started.

      With the beginning of the military conflict, we are faced with a new situation. Our hope is that the conflict will end with the minimum loss of human life and suffering. Our common challenges are:

      The EU is committed to the territorial integrity, the sovereignty, the political stability and the full and effective disarmament of Iraq in all its territory, as well as to the respect for the rights of the Iraqi people, including all persons belonging to minorities.

      We believe that the UN must...

    • (pp. 353-354)

      The statement reproduced below was made by the Greek Presidency on the occasion of the solemn ceremony of signature of the Accession Treaties by the ten new members of the European Union.

      The European Union welcomes the presence of the United Nations Secretary-General and the opportunity to discuss with him the next steps on Iraq.

      At this stage the coalition has the responsibility to ensure a secure environment, including for the provision of humanitarian assistance, in particular urgent medical relief, and the protection of the cultural heritage and museums.

      The people of Iraq now have the chance to shape a...

    • (pp. 355-356)

      The summit was held more than one month after major military hostilities in Iraq had ceased.

      The fall of the government of Saddam Hussein has paved the way for the people of Iraq to enjoy a peaceful, secure and prosperous future.

      The European Council welcomes the adoption of UNSC Resolution 1483, which demonstrates a new spirit of cooperation within the international community. We believe that it provides the basis for effective international support for the initial stages of Iraq’s political transition while ensuring adequate revenues for humanitarian assistance and reconstruction.

      The European Council welcomes the appointment of Sergio Vieira de...

    • (pp. 357-358)

      “1. The Council welcomed the setting up of the Iraqi Governing Council as an important first step towards the formation of an internationally recognized representative government established by the people of Iraq.

      2. The Council recalled that UNSCR 1483 supported the formation of an Iraqi interim administration, and expressed its confidence that the United Nations, in particular through the activity of the UNSG’s Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello, will continue to make an important contribution to post-conflict nation building in Iraq. It reiterated the Union’s readiness to support the UN Special Representative in the fulfillment of this task.

      3. The Council...

    • (pp. 359-360)

      This text was approved by the EU-15 shortly after the bloody terrorist action against the UN mission in Baghdad and in a context of rising violence in Iraq.

      The Council adopted the following Conclusions:

      “1. The Council strongly condemned the terrorist attacks which caused the deaths of many innocent victims and represented unsuccessful attempts to threaten the efforts of the International Community in ensuring peace security and stability in Iraq.

      2. The Council wishes to pay tribute to the courage and the vision of Sergio Vieira de Mello and his team and expressed its confidence that the work he had bravely...

    • (pp. 361-362)

      The Council adopted the following conclusions:

      “1. The Council reiterated the EU’s commitment to play an important role, within the framework of all relevant UNSC resolutions, in the international effort to help the Iraqi people to rebuild their country.

      2. Recalling its conclusions of 29 September 2003, the EU underlines the importance of the restoration of Iraqi sovereignty and the establishment of a fully representative Iraqi Government through democratic elections. Acknowledging the necessity to reach agreement on a realistic schedule for handing over political responsibility to the Iraqi people, the Council reiterated the EU’s support for the development of a prosperous,...

    • (pp. 363-363)

      The European Council welcomes the unanimous adoption of UNSC Resolution 1511. The European Council confirms the EU determination and commitment to play a significant role in the political and economic reconstruction of Iraq, within the framework of the relevant UNSC resolutions. The following will be essential for success:

      an adequate security environment,

      a strong and vital UN role,

      a realistic schedule for the handing over of political responsibility to the Iraqi people,

      the setting up of a transparent multilateral donor fund to channel support from the international community.

      The European Council confirms that the EU will actively contribute to the...

    • (pp. 364-365)

      The Council adopted the following Conclusions:

      “1. The Council expressed its deep solidarity with Italy for the brutal terrorist attack on its Armed Forces on 12 November 2003 in Nasria, killing 19 Italian soldiers and civilians together with many Iraqis. It extends its sincere condolences to the families of the victims. The Council again strongly condemns all terrorist attacks perpetrated against civilians, humanitarian organisations, the UN and military forces and reiterates the EU’s determination to fight terrorism in all its forms.

      2. The Council welcomes the accelerated process of handing over executive powers to the Iraqi Governing Council and its ministries....

    • (pp. 366-373)

      The document reproduced below summarises (a) the new general approach of the EU to the problems of stability and security in the broader Mediterranean area (including how to address human rights and democratisation issues), (b) the specific position over Iraq and its post-conflict stabilisation.

      1. The VIth Conference of Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers held in Naples on December 2nd and 3rd took place in a positive, constructive atmosphere against an international background casting shadows of tension, instability and insecurity in the region. In this framework, the Ministers reaffirmed their shared willingness to strengthening their partnership, thereby renewing their common adherence to the...

    • (pp. 374-382)

      The documents reproduced below constitute the most systematic effort made by the EU – by Council and Commission jointly – to address the broader issue of promoting domestic reform in the Arab world, from the Middle East proper (including Iraq) to the southern Mediterranean shore (including the Euro-Mediterranean partners).

      The Thessaloniki European Council (19/20 June 2003) invited the Commission and the High Representative to formulate a work plan on relations with the Arab World, taking full account of existing policies and programmes and, in particular, the Barcelona Process and the New Neighbours Initiative. The attached document “Strengthening the EU’s Partnership...

    • (pp. 383-383)

      The European Council reaffirms that the stability of Iraq is a shared interest and reiterates the Union’s commitment to supporting the political as well as the economic reconstruction of the country, within the framework of the relevant UNSC Resolutions. It stresses that an adequate security environment and a strong and vital UN role are essential elements for success. The European Council underlines the need for full implementation of UNSC Resolution 1511.

      The European Council repeats its wholehearted condemnation of terrorist attacks on Iraqis, multinational forces, and international organisations and staff, designed to undermine the political and economic reconstruction processes in...

    • (pp. 384-384)

      The EU welcomes the capture of Saddam Hussein as a crucial further step towards peace, stability, and democracy in Iraq and in the region. He should now be judged in a fair trial, according to the rule of law, so that justice be done.

      The Union stresses the need that after this important development the political process in Iraq moves forward, with the widest popular participation, towards an accelerated transfer of sovereignty to a transitional Iraqi government and the establishment of conditions for economic and social reconstruction and development in the country....

  4. III The Constitutional Treaty between the Convention and the IGC

    • a. The European Convention

      • (pp. 385-390)

        This Franco-German paper, on the institutional architecture of the Union, was made public and circulated shortly before the official celebrations for the 40th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty. After the preparatory work done at the end of 2002 by the Working Groups on External Action and Defence (see documents II-38 and II-39, respectively, in ‘From Laeken to Copenhagen’), this joint contribution represents the point of departure as well as general reference for the ensuing debate in the European Convention. It entails many proposals that have a bearing on the CFSP and defence. Also, it clearly shows how the two governments...

      • (pp. 391-394)

        Though not necessarily meant as a ‘response’ to the Franco-German paper, this joint statement by the British and Spanish Prime Ministers strengthens the case for a stable ‘chair’ of the European Council and against the rotational presidency system – what would be called in the press the ‘ABC proposal’, from the initial letters of Aznar, Blair and Chirac.

        The starting point for the UK and Spain, in voicing their opinions on the Union’s future institutional framework, is the maintenance of the basic balance of the “institutional triangle” (namely, the Council, the Commission and the European Parliament) and the preservation of...

      • (pp. 395-396)

        In mid-June, the European Convention had basically concluded its work by drafting – not without some hectic moments, especially towards the very end – a tentative ‘constitutional treaty’ for the Union that would simplify the existing treaties and lay the foundations for the future. The European Council decided not to extend the mandate of the Convention any further but to undertake a final ‘technical’ review, which would take place in the following weeks. Then the relay would be taken up by the ensuing Intergovernmental Conference (IGC), in which the ten acceding countries would have full rights and not simply (as...

      • (pp. 397-422)

        In mid-July, a slightly revised and polished version of the draft ‘constitutional treaty’ was solemnly approved ‘by consensus’: in fact, no final vote was taken, in conformity with the spirit of the exercise, and only very few ‘Conventionals’ made public their disapproval. On the whole, the heads of state and government of the EU cheered the result, although some nuances became apparent between those who considered the text as a ‘good basis’ for the IGC and those who, instead, underlined the need to change it as little as possible. The articles reproduced below are those that have direct or indirect...

    • b. The Intergovernmental Conference

      • (pp. 423-425)

        The article reproduced below conveys quite clearly the critical attitude of most ‘smaller’ EU members towards the way in which some articles of the draft ‘constitutional treaty’ had been first prepared, then interpreted by some’ bigger’ member states – especially regarding CFSP.

        Like all its European Union partners, Finland believes that the EU’s common foreign and security policy needs to be strengthened. This in turn means strengthening the European security and defence policy, which is a crucial part of the CFSP. Europe needs to be able to take responsibility for more demanding tasks in crisis management. However, the proposals on...

      • (pp. 426-428)

        The Intergovernmental Conference was formally opened on 4 October 2003 under the Italian Presidency. As a first step, the Presidency distributed among the 25 participating national delegations a questionnaire in order to evaluate which parts of the draft constitutional treaty required clarification and/or amendments. Subsequently, it circulated a series of documents that tried to amend the text of the Convention by incorporating most of the suggestions received. The role of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs was one of those that received the greatest attention.

        1. A number of delegations have sought clarification on the provisions in the draft Constitutional Treaty...

      • (pp. 429-431)

        The article reproduced below (the translation was kindly provided by Sweden’s Permanent Representation at the EU) summarises the general attitude of the non-allied member states on the future shape of CFSP and ESDP – inside and outside the IGC remit.

        For more than a month, EU Member States have been engaged in negotiations on a new constitutional treaty for the Union. One of the important issues being discussed by present and future Member States is what can be done to develop and improve the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. In these discussions Finland and Sweden are at one: it...

      • (pp. 432-436)

        In the final phase of the IGC under the Italian Presidency, one of the most controversial issues was the way in which ‘structured cooperation’ in defence would be articulated. Attention was paid in particular to the modalities for putting it in place and the actual contents of the Protocol it would be based on (absent from the Convention’s draft treaty). Subsequent versions would thus be submitted by the Presidency to the delegations.

        1. Those Member States which wish to participate in the permanent structured cooperation defined in Article I-40(6), which fulfil the criteria and have made the commitments on military capabilities...

      • (pp. 437-438)

        The joint letter reproduced below indicates very clearly the other main controversial issue in the negotiations on CFSP (and especially defence) matters, namely the clause on mutual defence. What is interesting to note is that the draft text delivered by the Convention presented the clause on mutual defence as a possible object of ‘closer cooperation’ among only some interested member states. After this letter by the foreign ministers of the four non-allied countries among the EU-15, priority would be given to finding a solution acceptable to all 25 members.

        The Intergovernmental Conference of the European Union is now addressing a...

      • (pp. 439-444)

        The text reproduced below was circulated by the Presidency as a further attempt to reach consensus on the two most controversial points – the clause on mutual defence and ‘structured cooperation’.

        Those Member States whose military capabilities fulfil higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding missions shall establish permanent structured cooperation within the Union framework. Such cooperation shall be governed by the provisions of Article III- 213.

        1. Those Member States which wish to participate in the permanent structured cooperation defined in Article I-40(6), which fulfil...

      • (pp. 445-453)

        This text is the last and final version submitted by the Italian Presidency ahead of the Brussels European Council. The extracts reproduced below embody the tentative level of agreement reached by the 25 delegations on the CFSP-relevant issues. However, these formulations cannot be considered as an acquis of the IGC in that the logic of the Conference is such that there is no agreement on single parts until there is agreement on the entire treaty text.

        1. (unchanged)

        2. (unchanged)

        3. (unchanged)

        4. In carrying out its responsibilities, the Commission shall be completely independent. Without prejudice to Article I-27(2), the President, the European Commissioners,...

      • (pp. 454-454)

        At the Brussels summit, disagreement inter alia over the voting system in the Council brought the IGC to an abrupt end. No final vote was taken, no provisional conclusions nor agenda for the future were approved. The only formal act is represented by this declaration released by the Italian Presidency at the end of the session.

        In conducting the Intergovernmental Conference the Italian Presidency’s aim was to abide as closely as possible by the draft drawn up by the Convention, which was the outcome of thorough, democratic debate, but it was ready to give constructive consideration to the proposals made...