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Research Report


Fritz Nganje
Copyright Date: Dec. 1, 2012
Pages: 26

Table of Contents

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  1. (pp. [ii]-[iv])
  2. (pp. v-vi)
  3. (pp. 2-2)

    In response to the political crisis in Libya in 2011, the African Union (AU) adopted a roadmap, which underscored the organisation’s position that only a political solution would guarantee peace and meet the legitimate aspirations of the Libyan people, while also upholding the unity and territorial integrity of the country. The same principle and logic influenced the AU’s position on the post-election crisis in Côte d’Ivoire earlier in 2011, and has been the foundation on which the AU, through the Southern African Development Community (SADC), has engaged with the disputing parties in Zimbabwe since 2008. In all these crisis situations,...

  4. (pp. 3-4)

    Ambassador Tom Amolo is the High Commissioner of the Republic of Kenya to South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho. His diplomatic career has its roots in a rich academic background. In 1983 he obtained a Bachelors degree in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Nairobi, before moving on to complete his graduate studies in Diplomacy and International Relations at the same university in 1986. Ambassador Amolo also holds postgraduate qualifications in international economics and diplomacy, as well as in preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution from the German Foreign Service Institute and Columbia University respectively.

    Ambassador Amolo has served...

  5. (pp. 5-6)
    Gilbert Khadiagala

    The dialogue was guided by a presentation on roadmaps as mechanisms for resolving African conflicts delivered by Prof Gilbert Khadiagala. Prof Khadiagala began by locating the ascendancy of roadmaps within the history of conflict resolution practices in Africa. He highlighted the fact that external intervention to resolve intra-state conflicts is not a novel phenomenon in Africa. There is a rich history of African mediators, in the form of governments, regional organizations and even elderly statesmen, helping to negotiate ceasefires and finding ways to restore political stability in a variety of conflict situations. This was often achieved with the support of...

  6. (pp. 7-9)

    Ambassador Tom Amolo presented a perspective on the subject, which was partly in response to Prof Khadiagala’s input but drew extensively from the Kenyan experience. He argued that as both content and process instruments, roadmaps have gained currency in peace processes in Africa because of their inherent strengths, particularly in terms of the fact that they often come with clear milestones and measureable options, which could facilitate the full settlement of conflict. However, he noted that despite its success in restoring calm, the application of this instrument in the 2007–2008 post-election crisis in Kenya underscores some practical constraints that...

  7. (pp. 10-13)

    There was consensus at the forum that the most desirable response to political crises in Africa is one that prioritises the search for negotiated and inclusive outcomes. The military option, it was argued, could under certain circumstances become attractive, such as when local actors display a cruel intransigence that triggers or escalates a humanitarian crisis and threatens regional stability. However, the challenge here is that while military campaigns may succeed in containing overt violence, the solution they offer is not sustainable. More engagement is required even after one of the belligerents has been neutralised. Unfortunately, the international community that often...

  8. (pp. 14-14)

    The ascendancy of roadmaps in Africa’s conflict resolution practice, as well as the concerns and controversies around the concept, embody the contradictions of and lingering challenges to the African renewal project. Seen through the general frame that captures attempts to transform the continent’s institutions of governance, the idea of roadmaps could best be described as being ahead of its time in engendering new thinking and bevahiour on matters of peace and security in Africa. It is clear from the thought-provoking observations summarised in this report that the normative underpinnings of roadmaps – among which are the preference for inclusive and...

  9. (pp. 15-18)
  10. (pp. 19-20)