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Research Report

NATO-EU Cooperation in Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Jean Dufourcq
David S. Yost
Copyright Date: May. 1, 2006
Published by: NATO Defense College
Pages: 74
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Table of Contents

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  1. (pp. 5-11)
    David S. YOST

    On 3-4 November 2005 the NATO Defense College hosted a seminar, co-sponsored by the Ministry of Defense of Finland,² regarding NATO and European Union post-conflict reconstruction operations. The participants included officials from NATO and the EU, as well as experts and officials from NATO, EU, and Partnership for Peace nations. The seminar objectives included:

    promoting more effective EU-NATO teamwork in such operations,

    evaluating the main problems and achievements to date, and

    assessing lessons from operations in Afghanistan in particular.

    This volume includes all the papers presented at the seminar. This introduction summarizes the discussion highlights and takes note of additional...

  2. (pp. 12-13)
    Alec AALTO

    In the past there was a clear concept of how wars begin and end. States declared war and concluded peace treaties. Other states intervened only when there was something to grab or when the balance of power so required. The sufferings of armies and civilian populations were terrible, but there was a certain predictability in the system. With time rules of international law emerged to regulate the conduct of states in war and peace.

    As part of the Kingdom of Sweden for many centuries, Finland had wide experience of war in the traditional sense. Frequent wars with Russia were fought...

  3. (pp. 14-20)
    Natalino RONZITTI

    International efforts for reconstruction are not new. It suffices to mention the Marshall Plan, which aimed at rebuilding the European economies destroyed in World War II. The Marshall Plan was conceived to help both defeated and victorious countries recover from the devastation of a major war.

    Decolonization and transition to independence raise different questions. Chapters XII and XIII of the UN Charter and the Trusteeship Council were employed to bring the territories placed under trusteeship to independence. The Trusteeship Council is a success story. Since the completion of decolonization in 1994, the Trusteeship Council has not been functional. At the...

  4. (pp. 21-25)

    At the end of the Second World War, both winners and losers in Europe and international society as a whole were faced with a truly catastrophic post-conflict situation. In view of the panoply of instruments employed to manage such a politically, economically and strategically difficult situation, the time it took the Europeans to become sufficiently aware of their collective European heritage, and how fragile that heritage still is, it is not surprising that NATO and the EU are encountering difficulties today in the Balkans, Central Asia and the Middle East.

    In Europe a whole series of measures was required. The...

  5. (pp. 26-31)
    Karen GUTTIERI

    Conflict and its aftermath endanger human security on many levels. Reconstruction, defined by the World Bank as "the rebuilding of the socioeconomic framework of society," builds security.² Peace and democracy are the noble goals of international reconstruction operations. Self-sustaining peacetime society under a rule of law constitutes success.

    The requirement for ownership within war torn societies is obvious to the many outside nations and organizations engaged in reconstruction. Capacity building – the transfer of knowledge and skills to indigenous individuals and institutions – is therefore vital for a government’s long-term ability to establish effective policies and deliver competent public services....

  6. (pp. 32-36)
    Eikka KOSONEN

    From the EU point of view, reconstruction should be seen in a wide context of post-conflict stabilisation and development efforts.

    In terms of financial contributions, the EU is a giant in most of the post-conflict situations around the world, and much of the responsibility in this respect lies within the European Commission.

    The EU involvement in the Balkans has demonstrated that a wide range of tools is needed, and that the reconstruction process has to be extended from material support to other areas, including institution-building, the rule of law, democracy, development, and social issues. Both military involvement and civilian crisis...

  7. (pp. 37-41)
    Mihai CARP

    The very fact that this seminar is discussing joint approaches by NATO and the EU to reconstruction is significant in itself. It shows that there is a growing consensus that different institutions, while retaining their specific attributes and mandates, have a role to play in a post-conflict environment. Clearly, without minimizing the role of other international organisations such as the UN or of non-governmental organisations, NATO and the EU are the leading institutions in this respect.

    Post-conflict areas over the last few years, including the Balkans and Afghanistan, have shown that intervening actors must have a coordinated approach if they...

  8. (pp. 42-45)
    Richard ZINK

    The 1998-1999 Kosovo crisis was an important milestone for NATO because it triggered the Alliance’s first armed intervention. It was also an important juncture for the European Union. The EU’s action to stabilize Kosovo marked the first time that the Union moved quickly into a volatile post-conflict environment.

    This is how Chris Patten, the EU’s former External Relations Commissioner, recalls that moment in his recently published memoirs entitled Not Quite the Diplomat:

    Not a week passed without Madeleine Albright (then American Secretary of State) or her Balkans frontman, Jim Dobbins, telephoning to find out how we were translating promises into...

  9. (pp. 46-51)
    Chris MORFFEW

    How have stabilisation and reconstruction found their way into NATO’s list of missions? How can the military contribute to stabilisation and post conflict reconstruction efforts and how can NATO involvement in Security Sector Reform contribute?

    NATO experience of post-Cold War operations clearly demonstrates that stabilisation operations and support to post-conflict reconstruction efforts have had, and will continue to have, increasing significance. The demands of these operations are important to the Alliance and will need to be given considerable weight in NATO’s future planning activities.

    NATO’s experience in Bosnia Herzegovina pointed the way. After Dayton the primary role was to separate,...

  10. (pp. 52-57)
    Bernard CARREAU

    There are many efforts underway to improve the capacities of the U.S. government to promote post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction in the wake of U.S. experiences in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and especially Iraq.

    This paper outlines ongoing activities at the Pentagon, the State Department and other civilian agencies, and Congress aimed at improving the government’s response capabilities with respect to stabilization and reconstruction operations. It also discusses some recent proposals by research institutes and individual experts.

    Most future overseas military deployments will at some point require major civilian contributions and coalition partner participation. Deployments will not involve the military alone, especially...

  11. (pp. 58-60)
    Zalmaï HAQUANI

    Afghanistan is one of several post-conflict countries seriously affected by long years of war and in need of international assistance. That is why, at Afghanistan's initiative, at the Ministerial Conference in Cotonou in August 2002 on the least developed countries, and at the Marrakech Conference in December 2003 on cooperation between developing countries, it was decided to include a special reference to post-conflict countries in the Final Acts. It is also recognized that, in addition to being one of the least developed countries, Afghanistan is also a landlocked country, and therefore doubly disadvantaged, geographically and economically.

    These are the conditions...

  12. (pp. 61-69)
    Christopher ALEXANDER

    Afghanistan’s post-Taliban achievements are as yet dimly perceived – even inside the country. This paper seeks to highlight successes and challenges, stressing the vital importance of a unified framework for international engagement. It certainly does not aim to provide a performance review of EU and NATO stabilization, development and reconstruction efforts to date.

    Yet together with the United States these international organizations and other donors now share heavy responsibility for Afghanistan’s transition even as Afghan ownership grows and institutions emerge. The successful implementation of the Bonn agenda has opened the door to a further phase of political engagement and capacity-building....

  13. (pp. 70-72)
    Birgitte JUUL

    In recent years, Denmark has gained experience in humanitarian and reconstruction aid in connection with the resolution of military conflicts in the West Balkans, Iraq and Afghanistan. Each of these conflicts has led to extensive destruction of social structures and has generated a need for a broad approach to reconstruction involving many organisations.

    International crisis management operations are not only a military task. For the civilian population in a crisis area, improving the social and economic situation and enhancing security are directly related. One can win wars with military means, but peace can only be won by a much more...