Research Report


Thabit Jacob
Rasmus Hundsbæk Pedersen
Faustin Maganga
Opportuna Kweka
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2016
Pages: 38
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 3-5)

    This is the second of two papers on rights to land and natural resources in the extractive sectors in Tanzania. The first paper – Rights to land and natural resources in Tanzania (1/2). The history focuses on the historical development of rights in the mining and petroleum sectors in mainland Tanzania (Pedersen et al. 2016). It analyses how the three main groups of actors, influence – or are influenced by – the investment processes, namely smallholders, investors and state actors. The first paper points out that rights are much more fluid than most often depicted in the good resource governance...

  2. (pp. 6-17)

    The mining sector has been an important avenue for attracting foreign investment into Tanzania since colonial times. After a downturn under the period of African Socialism, when the state sought bigger direct stakes in operations, the sector has grown steadily over the years since the first liberalisation reform in 1980 to the present period (see Pedersen, Jacob, Kweka and Maganga, 2016). Whereas the state’s regulatory power has been on the increase throughout, its direct economic stake in the sector has thus been waxing and waning. The structural adjustment period in the 1990s saw a retrenchment of direct state interests, but...

  3. (pp. 18-28)

    Unlike the mining sector, the petroleum sector remained unreformed until the late 2000s. This is due to the fact that commercial interest in exploring and extracting petroleum resources was limited. The first gas finds were made around Songo Songo Island in the south-eastern part of Tanzania in 1974, but gas is difficult and expensive to transport for export markets and the Tanzanian domestic market was still deemed too small for viable production. Therefore, it was only in 2004 and only with significant donor assistance that gas-to-electricity production based on the Songo Songo finds began (Pedersen & Bofin 2015). Since then, commercial...

  4. (pp. 29-30)

    Tanzania’s extractive sectors have undergone major reforms in recent years. The most recent ones, the 2010 Mining Act and the 2015 Petroleum Act, change the rules of the game for all stakeholders when compared to the more liberal reforms and measures implemented in the 1990s, which aimed at attracting foreign direct investments. This paper has reviewed these changes, focusing on landmark decisions, that is on the emergence of potential new policy paradigms that will require significant political and administrative effort to institutionalise. It is the second of two papers focusing on the development of rights in Tanzania’s extractive sectors. The...