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Research Report


Editor Sinan Ülgen
Associate Editor Grace Kim
Salih Bıçakcı
Mitat Çelikpala
Ahmet Kasım Han
Can Kasapoğlu
F. Doruk Ergun
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2015
Pages: 106
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-1)

    Rising threats in cyber security motivated EDAM to prepare this report that covers the basics of cyber security with a focus on critical infrastructure and especially nuclear power plants. This collection includes four complementary chapters to help the reader understand Turkey's cyber security challenges with a focus on nuclear power plants as components of the country's critical infrastructure.

    The first chapter by Can Kasapoğlu introduces the concept of cyberwarfare as the next Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). The chapter sets out current and potential hostile cyber trends and emerging state capabilities. It analyzes cyberspace as the fifth domain of fighting...

  2. (pp. 2-21)
    Can Kasapoğlu

    Turkey's internet usage is rapidly growing through social media enhancements, private sectors utilization, and state-owned enterprise networks. Growing interconnectedness, Turkish critical national infrastructure's dependence on networks, and cyber attacks have introduced the complex realities of cyber security to the Turkish national security agenda. In this context, Ankara initiated the first legal framework for national cyber security coordination, The Decree on Execution and Coordination of National Cyber Security Affairs (Ulusal Siber Güvenlik Çalışmalarının Yürütülmesi ve Koordinasyonuna İlişkin Karar), on October 20, 2012.1 Furthermore, the "National Action Plan for Cyber Security" was adopted in 2013. The Action Plan underlined the hardships of...

  3. (pp. 22-51)
    Salih Bıçakcı, F.Doruk Ergun and Mitat Çelikpala

    The advent of the cyber realm brought along multiple security challenges to both users and security agencies of nation states. Cyber attackers have the potential to wreak havoc by targeting financial institutions, accessing and leaking national secrets, and as multiple examples, including the Stuxnet worm against Iranian nuclear facilities have shown, by causing actual physical damage akin to a kinetic attack to national infrastructure. Cyber-attacks are harder to attribute, as attackers rarely leave any traces and in fact work to obscure their origin. In most cases, cyber attackers do not need expensive and rare equipment; this is bolstered by the...

  4. (pp. 52-68)
    Ahmet Han and Mitat Çelikpala

    Hoping to add nuclear energy to its energy mix, Turkey has planned to build three nuclear power plants (NPP) to generate 20% of its electricity production from nuclear power by 2023. The 20% target is almost equal in proportion to the electricity generated by NPPs in the United States.1 As seen clearly, this marks an ambitious goal. For this reason, maintaining cyber security is a topic in need of diligent attention. This paper, which focuses upon the international aspect of nuclear power plant cyber security, will discuss particular international steps and developments, rendered crucial for the case of Turkey.


  5. (pp. 69-97)
    Salih Bıçakcı

    Cyber security is an indispensible part of the security regime of nuclear power plants. Since the rise of cyber security culture is a relatively new issue, several nuclear power plants were designed without concern for cyber attacks.

    With the civilianization of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), the U.S. Defense Department's research brainchild, the Internet entered the mainstream. The limited Internet connectivity with the dial-up modem in the 1990's quickly reached the level of hyperconnectivity in the first decade of the 21st century. Personal computers, mobile phones, tablets, and digital sensors have expanded network coverage and transformed the way...