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Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakes

Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakes: Volumes 1 and 2

M. Munawar
I. F. Munawar
  • Book Info
    Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakes
    Book Description:

    Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakesis the compilation of two volumes, originally published 1996 and 2000. Both volumes provide a thorough treatment of the community structure, function, and dynamics of phytoplankton in the North American Great Lakes and represent the culmination of nearly three decades' worth of work by Mohiuddin Munawar and Iftekhar F. Munawar.With these volumes, the phycology of the North American Great Lakes has been brought into the new millennium. Volume 1 focuses on the Lower Great Lakes-Lakes Ontario and Erie-while volume 2 highlights Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior.Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakesalso includes a chapter devoted to the integration, summarization, and synthesis of the two volumes' major findings, as well as a discussion of the current and future status of food-web research in the Great Lakes.

    eISBN: 978-0-9921007-6-6
    Subjects: General Science, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Biological Sciences, Aquatic Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Volume 1

    • Table of Contents
      (pp. v-vi)
    • Dedication
      (pp. vii-viii)
      Mohiuddin Munawar
    • Preface
      (pp. ix-xii)
      Mohiuddin Munawar
    • Salutation
      (pp. xiii-xvi)
      John R. Vallentyne
    • Foreword
      (pp. xvii-xx)
      Colin S. Reynolds

      Everything about the Laurentian Great Lakes is on the grand scale. Together, they constitute the largest system of interlinked bodies of freshwater in the world; in fact, at some 22,700 km³, they hold about 17% of the planet’s liquid surface freshwater. The lakes cover a surface area of over 245,000 km², almost twice the size of the Kaspiskoye More. Ontario, the bottom lake in the series, sheds over 200 km³ of water each year, representing an average annual net run-off of 270 mm from a drainage basin covering 745,000 km². Superior, the mightiest of the lakes, has an estimated hydraulic...

    • Chapter 1. Introduction, Techniques, and Procedures
      (pp. 1-16)

      The Laurentian (North American) Great Lakes together form the largest fresh-water body on earth (Fig. 1). The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence river drainage system is quite extensive (Fig. 2). It covers two provinces in Canada and seven states in the U.S.A. They have been called ‘inland seas’ and are among the 50 largest and deepest lakes (Table 1) of the world (Herdendorf, 1982; Munawar, 1987). The best known lakes of the world according to their area and volume have been ranked in Fig 3. to provide a comparative overview. A complete list of the 30 largest lakes in the World is...

    • Chapter 2. Lake Ontario: Phytoplankton Composition
      (pp. 17-104)

      Several papers have been published on the phytoplankton ecology of Lake Ontario (Munawar & Nauwerck, 1971; Stadelmann & Munawar, 1974; Munawar & Munawar, 1975a, 1982). The inshore and offshore developmental pattern of phytoplankton is a characteristic feature of Lake Ontario and has been discussed in detail in Munawar & Munawar (1986) and elsewhere. An attempt has been made to explore the seasonality of nutrient and biomass relationships from some 1970 investigations and from an extensive study conducted in 1983 dealing with nanoplankton and picoplankton (Munawar & Munawar, 1986). A lakewide comparison was carried out recently (Munawaret al., 1987) emphasizing the distinction between inshore and...

    • Chapter 3. Lake Ontario: Phytoplankton Parameters and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 105-132)

      Phytoplankton biomass, its composition and primary production in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been reviewed by Vollenweideret al. (1974). Lakewide species composition of phytoplankton in Lake Ontario for the year 1970 has been described by Munawar & Nauwerck (1971) and simultaneous measurements of primary production are given by Glooschenkoet al. (1974). During the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFYGL 1972/1973), Munawaret al. (1974) and Stadelmannet al. (1974) carried out studies of the vertical and diurnal variations of primary production at a nearshore and a mid-lake station. Munawaret al. (1974) reported the seasonal variation of...

    • Chapter 4. Lake Erie: Phytoplankton Composition
      (pp. 133-198)

      In the past, comprehensive studies on Lake Erie phytoplankton were few in number (Davis, 1966, 1969; Vollenweideret al., 1974; Munawar & Munawar, 1975, 1976). The phytoplankton of western Lake Erie received the attention of several investigators (Tiffany, 1934; Chandler, 1940, 1942, 1944; Verduin, 1951, 1952, 1960, 1964; Wrightet al., 1955; Casper, 1965; Wujeck, 1967; Hohn, 1969; Oliveet al., 1969; Taft & Taft, 1971). Studies of the central basin were confined to a few stations mainly in nearshore waters (Burkholder, 1929, 1960; Davis, 1954, 1964, 1965; Braidechet al., 1971). Not much was known about eastern Lake Erie phytoplankton except...

    • Chapter 5. Lake Erie: Phytoplankton Parameters and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 199-220)

      Data on the phytoplankton of Lake Erie down to the species level for the year 1970 are described in Chapter 4 and in Munawar & Munawar (1976). Concentrations of soluble nutrients in the phytoplankton samples during each of the ten sampling surveys in 1970 were also reported (Gächteret al., 1974). In addition, data on the primary production (Glooschenkoet al., 1974a) and the temperature and chlorophyllaconcentrations within the same samples (Glooschenkoet al., 1974b) are available. These databases were used by Munawar & Burns (1976) to examine the relationships prevailing in Lake Erie between phytoplankton biomass of various taxonomic...

    • Chapter 6. Lake St. Clair: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 221-280)

      Lake St. Clair is the smallest lake in the Laurentian Great Lakes system with a maximum length of 43 km, a width of 40 km, a mean depth of 3 m, and a surface area of 1115 km² (Leach, 1991). It is located between Lake Huron to the north and Lake Erie to the south. Extensive wetlands support large waterfowl communities and the lake sustains a high level of recreational activity (Edsallet al., 1988).

      About 98 percent of the water flowing into the Lake is from the St. Clair River in the north originating from Lake Huron (Leach, 1972),...

    • Taxonomic Index
      (pp. 281-282)
  2. Volume 2

    • Preface (from Volume 1)
      (pp. ix-xii)
      Mohiuddin Munawar
    • Preface
      (pp. xiii-xiv)
      M. Munawar and I. F. Munawar
    • Salutation
      (pp. xv-xviii)
      R.A. Vollenweider
    • Foreword
      (pp. xix-xix)
      Colin S. Reynolds

      Four years have passed since Mohiuddin and Iftekhar Munawar published Volume 1 of their compendium of knowledge about the phytoplankton dynamics in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes. The authority and depth of its treatment has proved as helpful as it promised: the book has already proved itself as the key to the resource of knowledge of the phytoplankton of the Lakes. It has established itself as a standard work of reference to how much has been investigated, when and by whom, a summary, if you will, of how much is known. It thus fulfils a secondary, though no less important,...

    • Acknowledgement of the Copyright
      (pp. xx-xx)
    • Chapter 1. Lake Superior: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters, and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 1-70)

      The Lake Superior watershed includes the headwaters of the st. Lawrence River system. On an area basis, it is the largest freshwater lake in the world and, in volume, it is the third only to Lakes Baikal and Tanganyika. Lake Superior has a long flushing time of 177 years (Matheson & Munawar, 1978) and has near-pristine water quality. Weiler (1978) and Munawar & Munawar (1978) discussed the water chemistry of the Lake during, 1973 and found that the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was 6.2 μg 1−1, and only nitrate and silica had well-defined seasonal cycles. Until three decades ago, the...

    • Chapter 2. Lake Michigan: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters, and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 71-104)

      While the Lake Superior and Lake Huron system mostly cover the resistant rock of the Canadian Shield, Lake Michigan lies on the soft sedimentary rock of the Michigan Basin with the Lake’s watershed relatively rich in nutrients. The eastern shore is characterized by the most pronounced sand dunes of the Great Lakes (Strickler, 1986). The western and northern shores are formed mostly by Silurian rock, mainly dolomite, similar to that found on Manitoulin Island and Bruce Peninsula of the Huron Lake system (Beeton & Chandler, 1966; Sly & Thomas, 1974). Lake Michigan drains through the Straits of Mackinac into Lake Huron. In...

    • Chapter 3. North Channel: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters, and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 105-128)

      The phytoplankton of the North Channel constitutes one of the least known flora of the Laurentian Great Lakes (Vollenweideret al., 1974) Limited information has been made available about North Channel phytoplankton through Munawar (1977), Munawar & Munawar (1979b, 1981) and, more recently, concerning its seasonality in Munawar & Munawar (1986) and Munawaret al. (1988b).

      The phytoplankton sampling in the North Channel was carried out using a 0 to 20-m Integrated Sampler (Schroeder, 1969). The samples were collected at eight stations during five cruises from May to October, 1974 (Fig. 1).

      The mean percent biomass composition per station for the year...

    • Chapter 4. Georgian Bay: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters, and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 129-162)

      Among the habitats of the Great Lakes, the phytoplankton of Georgian Bay is relatively unexplored on a lakewide basis (Vollenweideret al., 1974). Historically, some qualitative accounts of the diatoms have been given by Bailey & MacKay (1921) and Bailey (1925). Limited information available so far about Georgian Bay phytoplankton includes the work of Munawar (1977), Nichollset al. (1977) and Munawar & Munawar (1979). Brief accounts of phytoplankton biomass composition and its seasonality are found in Munawar & Munawar (1981, 1986, 1988).

      The phytoplankton sampling in Georgian Bay was carried out using a 0 to 20-m Integrated Sampler (Schroeder, 1969). The samples...

    • Chapter 5. Lake Huron: Phytoplankton Composition, Parameters, and Ecological Implications
      (pp. 163-194)

      The Lake Huron system is the second largest of the Laurentian Great Lakes and fifth largest lake in the world. Four interconnected bodies of water, the main Lake Huron, Saginaw Bay, North Channel, and Georgian Bay form this complex (Fig. 1). The North Channel is joined to Georgian Bay through a narrow passage at the northeast tip of Manitoulin Island, the largest island in any freshwater lake. Water from Lake Superior passes through the western end of the North Channel and into Lake Huron. Georgian Bay is linked to Lake Huron through the Main Channel, south of Manitoulin Island. Details...

    • Chapter 6. Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakes: Synthesis and Summary
      (pp. 195-240)

      This chapter concludes the two-volume monograph on phytoplankton dynamics in the world’s largest freshwater lake system, the Laurentian (North American) Great Lakes. Our data, which span a period of more than 30 years, are based on a widely accepted and reliable standard technique that provides both quantitative accuracy and the resolution essential for algal species identification (Utermöhl, 1958; Vollenweider, 1969; Munawaret al., 1974). The actual microscopy benchwork was performed by two qualified and experienced phycologists who consistently followed the standardized taxonomic and quantitative procedures for all the Great Lakes. Our work was enhanced by adequate funding, field equipment, and...

    • Taxonomic Index
      (pp. 241-242)
  3. Subject Index, Volumes 1 and 2
    (pp. 243-253)