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International and Language Education for a Global Future: Fifty Years of U.S. Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs

David S. Wiley
Robert S. Glew
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 502
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  • Book Info
    International and Language Education for a Global Future
    Book Description:

    The contributions to this book address the role that the U.S. Department of Education Title VI and Fulbright-Hays programs have played in building the largest and highest quality infrastructure in the world for training in languages and other aspects of foreign area knowledge. The volume celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Title VI and associated Fulbright-Hays programs, which have established more than 150 centers of excellence for modern foreign language and area studies and international business education in more than 60 U.S. universities.The authors review the history of the programs, including their founding and their cumulative impacts on internationalizing the American university at the graduate and undergraduate levels. They review how programs for foreign research, technology for foreign information access, and undergraduate programs have built the foundations of U.S. language-learning materials for use in college courses and government with improved language-learning pedagogies, erected the most distinguished library holdings on foreign countries, supported in-depth research abroad in virtually every nation, and created capacity to teach more than 200 less commonly taught languages.

    eISBN: 978-1-60917-221-3
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. CHAPTER 1 Introduction: Seeking Global Competence through the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Acts
    (pp. 1-14)
    David S. Wiley

    The chapters in this volume result from the conference¹ in March 2009 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Title VI Programs of the Higher Education Opportunity Act² with the associated Fulbright-Hays programs. Congress and multiple administrations have continued support of these programs for half a century to maintain a remarkably stable focus on building more than 100 centers of excellence for modern foreign language and area studies education in more than fifty leading U.S. universities. To support that core effort, over the next three decades through the 1980s, Congress added several programs and expanded the mandates to include International...


    • CHAPTER 2 Gulliver’s Travels: The History and Consequences of Title VI
      (pp. 17-32)
      Gilbert W. Merkx

      The original title of Jonathan Swift’s 1726 classic wasTravels into Several Remote Regions of the World, In Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver. The challenges of dealing with the unfamiliar, which madeGulliver’s Travelsso popular, have hardly abated. For the past fifty years, Title VI of the Higher Education Act (previously the National Defense Education Act) has been the U.S. government’s primary mechanism for helping Americans acquire the cultural and linguistic competence needed to make the remote regions of the world seem more familiar. This chapter examines Title VI from three perspectives: first, in terms of the larger historical...

    • CHAPTER 3 Title VI and National and Global Security: Current Status and Concerns Going Forward
      (pp. 33-68)
      Mark Tessler

      In addressing the relationship between Title VI and national and global security, this chapter offers reflections on four interrelated topics. The first section discusses the importance for security-related concerns of global competence—defined as knowledge, understanding, and skills related to other countries and cultures and to world affairs more generally. It also calls attention to the contribution of Title VI programs in building global competence among ordinary citizens and in ensuring that the country has the foreign area expertise it needs.¹ The second section reinforces claims about the importance of global competence, and the programs that help to produce it,...


    • CHAPTER 4 The Impact of Fifty Years of Title VI on Language Learning in the United States
      (pp. 71-88)
      Elaine E. Tarone

      Why is it important for Americans to learn foreign languages? In a nation that has been so resolutely English-speaking for more than 200 years, where U.S. citizens can apparently live their entire lives without ever needing to use any other language, why should they bother? Even for those interested in international travel and work, is it not enough just to learn about other areas of the world without having to learn the languages spoken there?

      There are many good reasons, both individual and national, for Americans to learn foreign languages. At the individual level, bilingual mastery improves an individual’s cognitive...

    • CHAPTER 5 The Growth of the Less Commonly Taught Languages in Title VI and Language Programs in the United States
      (pp. 89-110)
      David S. Wiley

      That the 130 Title VI National Resource Centers (NRCs) and Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) universities have developed the capacity by 2006–2009 to offer approximately 195 less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) is an astonishing accomplishment made possible by a modest amount for funding from the U.S. Department of Education over the past fifty years.² Each competitively selected NRC receives only approximately $230,000 annually for all aspects of language and area studies training and a roughly equal amount for six to ten FLAS fellowships for academic year language instruction.³ The small size of Title VI grants and limited number...

    • CHAPTER 6 Language Competence—Performance, Proficiency, and Certification: Current Status and New Directions
      (pp. 111-136)
      Catherine J. Doughty

      Throughout the first fifty years of Title VI legislation, reauthorizations, and funding appropriations, the U.S. Congress has charged the Department of Education with establishing a national capacity in foreign languages, cultures, and international and area studies. The companion chapter in this section documents the extensive successes of Title VI in developing a widespread infrastructure which serves as the foundation for this national capacity. In her chapter, Professor Tarone identifies the essential building blocks of this infrastructure: the many centers (e.g., National Resource Centers, Language Resource Centers, and Centers for International Business Education), fellowships (e.g., Foreign Language and Area Studies), and...


    • CHAPTER 7 Title VI and Foundation Support for Area Studies: Its History and Impacts
      (pp. 139-154)
      Anne H. Betteridge

      A review of Title VI support for area studies from the inception of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) program in 1958 to the present has drawn my attention to three facts. The first is the enduring importance of Title VI programs as the mainstay of area and international studies in the United States. Second, area is not rigidly defined in Title VI legislation or for purposes of administration. Third, the continued existence of Title VI programs allows their partners in universities and private foundations to take area studies in new directions, secure in the knowledge that a solid infrastructure...

    • CHAPTER 8 The Changing Form and Function of Title VI since Its Beginnings in the 1960s
      (pp. 155-164)
      Richard D. Lambert

      It is immensely gratifying to contribute to the fiftieth anniversary celebration of Title VI, as I suspect that I am among the few survivors who participated in the founding and early operation of the program. My account will unavoidably be reminiscent, retrospective, and anecdotal because I have not been involved in area studies for some twenty-five years. Let me select a few issues that arose in the early days of Title VI, and those in the international studies field can judge whether they are still relevant today. For more organized and more detailed accounts of the early days of language...

    • CHAPTER 9 The Impact of Title VI Programs on the U.S. Higher Education System: Lessons from the First Thirty Years (1958–1988)
      (pp. 165-192)
      Nancy L. Ruther

      From 1958 to 1988, federal policy was aimed at creating and sustaining capacity within the U.S. higher education system to provide international, regional, and language expertise and experts for the country. Title VI was forged into the core operational model of the federal international higher education policy arena, through the legislative and implementation trajectory of three programs: Title VI, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) university programs, and the never-funded International Education Act (IEA) of 1966.

      The key question addressed in this chapter is: How did the history of the federal relationship with higher education, 1958–1988, affect the institutional...


    • CHAPTER 10 Area Studies and Academic Disciplines across Universities: A Relational Analysis with Organizational and Public Implications
      (pp. 195-226)
      Michael D. Kennedy

      How can we think about contemporary and historical relationships among disciplines and area studies in order to enhance the scholarly value of their encounters and their impact on the public good?

      That is the broad question I pursue in a number of ways through other scholarship, but in this chapter I will focus on the contemporary, on how disciplines organize their area studies engagements, and on potential scholarly values in the reorganization of area studies. I also offer observations on some of the ways in which that scholarly reorganization can have public impact, how area studies differ across regions, and...

    • CHAPTER 11 Renewing International Studies: Regional and Transregional Studies in a Changing Intellectual Field
      (pp. 227-254)
      Craig Calhoun

      There are both public and scholarly reasons to wish for a renewal of international studies in American universities. Such a renewal would serve not only foreign policy but also private voluntary action, private business, and critical public awareness. Because U.S. universities have long been leaders in international studies, renewal—which the Title VI programs could lead—would be of global value. It would also make for intellectually exciting scholarship.

      To be successful, renewal would mean not just more teaching and research on international topics, but also better connections across a several disciplines, interdisciplinary programs, and professional schools. Overcoming current fragmentation,...


    • CHAPTER 12 Title VI and Global Competitiveness: Building International Business Education for the Twenty-First Century
      (pp. 257-282)
      Melissa H. Birch

      The past fifty years have seen a dramatic change in the international environment for U.S. business. Highly regulated trade has given way to more open markets, and the volume of world trade has increased tremendously. Currently, about 25 percent of world production is sold outside the country in which it was produced, up from 7 percent in 1950. U.S. imports as a share of gross national product, a measure of openness, have grown from only about 5 percent in the 1960s to more than 17 percent in 2007.¹ Although U.S. firms had originally found their major competitors in Europe and...

    • CHAPTER 13 Title VI and the Global Competitiveness of U.S. Firms
      (pp. 283-300)
      Michael A. Hitt

      In his most recent book, Thomas Friedman (2008) cited a Daimler advertising slogan used to promote its Smart “Fourfor” compact car. The slogan reads as follows: “German engineering, Swiss innovation, American nothing.” This slogan implies that the automobile advertised is superior because it is the product of German engineering and Swiss innovation and has no input from designers or manufacturers in the United States. On the one hand, this particular slogan describes the unfortunately weak competitive position of and low esteem in which U.S. automobile manufacturers are held throughout the world. On the other hand, it suggests a weak or...


    • CHAPTER 14 Beyond Accountability: A Balanced Approach to Assessment and Benchmarking
      (pp. 303-316)
      Carl Falsgraf

      Developing a national capacity of proficient language users is a central purpose of Title VI. The need was urgent in 1959, and is felt even more so today. In these fifty years, however, there has been no systematic measurement of language outcomes from Title VI programs. Title VI programs do indeed produce proficient speakers of a wide variety of languages, and the means to document these outcomes are generally available. Why, then, have National Resource Centers (NRCs) been unable or unwilling to assess students’ language abilities?

      Conversations with colleagues reveal a variety of reasons:

      No language test could possibly capture...

    • CHAPTER 15 Accessing and Assessing Title VI International Education Programs: The View from Black Colleges
      (pp. 317-328)
      LaNitra Berger

      In 2005, the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) received Title VI funding to complete a survey of foreign languages, international studies, and study abroad at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly black institutions (PBIs).¹ This chapter is based on the results of that study (NAFEO 2009: 17), focusing on an assessment of the role of international education on black college campuses, the level of minority student participation in international education, and the presence of minority-serving institutions (MSIs) in Title VI programs. It argues that better and more frequent assessment will help federal agencies, nonprofits,...


    • CHAPTER 16 Preparing for the Future: Title VI and Its Challenges
      (pp. 331-340)
      Patrick O’Meara

      Occasions such as this fiftieth anniversary are times to remind ourselves of the roots and aspirations of the transformative legislation that we refer to as Title VI. The funding that began as a result of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in the 1950s has made a significant contribution to scholarship and to national security as it became Title VI of the Higher Education Act of 1965 and operated in tandem with the Fulbright-Hays programs. At the same time, there have been challenges to the very existence of the funding. My approach in reviewing this historic period is based to...

    • CHAPTER 17 Future Directions for Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs: Creativity and Competence for Facing Global Challenges
      (pp. 341-354)
      William I. Brustein

      For the past fifty years the U.S. Department of Education’s Title VI and Fulbright-Hays programs (Title VI/FH) have played a highly significant and successful role in preparing generations of graduates from U.S. institutions of higher education to confront our nation’s economic, political, and security realities and challenges. In this chapter, I focus principally on new challenges and opportunities and propose direction for Title VI and Fulbright-Hays in addressing these new challenges and opportunities, thereby ensuring the survival and growth of these programs during the next fifty years.

      My principal thesis is that the future of Title VI/FH depends largely on...


    • APPENDIX A Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs of the U.S. Department of Education
      (pp. 355-364)
      Christine E. Root and David S. Wiley
    • APPENDIX B U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Centers, Language Resource Centers, Centers for International Business Education, American Overseas Resource Centers, and the Institute for International Public Policy, 2006–2010
      (pp. 365-376)
    • APPENDIX C Summary of Discussions from Plenary Panels, Title VI 50th Anniversary Conference
      (pp. 377-380)
      Marita Eibl
    • APPENDIX D Papers Presented at the Title VI 50th Anniversary Conference, March 19–21, 2009, Washington, D.C.
      (pp. 381-398)
    • APPENDIX E Less Commonly Taught Languages Offered in the Title VI National Resource Centers
      (pp. 399-424)
  13. About the Contributors
    (pp. 425-426)
  14. Index
    (pp. 427-439)