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Handbook of Engaged Scholarship: Contemporary Landscapes, Future Directions: Volume 2: Community-Campus Partnerships

Hiram E. Fitzgerald
Cathy Burack
Sarena D. Seifer
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 384
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  • Book Info
    Handbook of Engaged Scholarship
    Book Description:

    In the preface to theHandbook of Engaged Scholarship, Hiram Fitzgerald observes that the Kellogg Commission's challenge to higher education to engage with communities was a significant catalyst for action. At Michigan State University, the response was the development of "engaged scholarship," a distinctive, scholarly approach to campus-community partnerships.Engaged scholars recognize that community based scholarship is founded on an underpinning of mutual respect and recognition that community knowledge is valid and that sustainability is an integral part of the partnership agenda.In this two-volume collection, contributors capture the rich diversity of institutions and partnerships that characterize the contemporary landscape and the future of engaged scholarship. Volume One addresses such issues as the application of engaged scholarship across types of colleges and universities and the current state of the movement. Volume Two contains essays on such topics as current typologies, measuring effectiveness and accreditation, community-campus partnership development, national organizational models, and the future landscape.

    eISBN: 978-1-60917-194-0
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    James C. Votruba

    Over the past twenty years there has developed within American higher education a rich conversation concerning how colleges and universities can better utilize their vast knowledge resources to support public progress. Beyond the production of graduates, what is the value-added that we bring to such public goals as strengthening economic competitiveness, improving P–12 education, enhancing health care, and a host of other challenges that confront our nation and its communities? What form should this public engagement take? Who should be involved? How can this involvement contribute to our mission to educate students and produce cutting-edge research? The contributors to...


    • Types of Engaged Scholarship
      (pp. 3-4)
      Craig D. Weidemann

      True engagement is based on reciprocity, though the manner of collaborating may be very different. In this section, we consider the essential elements of teaching, research, and service as they relate to engagement across a spectrum of community engagement platforms.

      Thomas G. Coon calls to our attention one of the earliest models of university engagement, the Cooperative Extension Service (CES), in “Expertise, the Cooperative Extension Service, and Engaged Scholarship.” Initially, Extension focused on one-way delivery of information; however, after nearly a century, it has become more focused on co-determining the information that needs to be addressed. As Professor Coon notes,...

    • Campus-Community Partnerships: Perspectives on Engaged Research
      (pp. 5-28)
      Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Angela Allen and Peggy Roberts

      Higher education is under increasing pressure to develop solutions to major social and economic problems affecting society. Critics contend that higher education has drifted too far from its core mission and moved too far from its historical commitment to help meet the broad and diverse needs of society (Boyer, 1996; Coye, 1997). Research universities, in particular, are cited as devaluing applied research and overemphasizing basic or pure research as the gold standard for faculty promotion and reward. Both critics (Boyer, 1994; Glassick, Huber, & Maeroff, 1997; Kezar, Chambers, & Burkhardt, 2005) and commissions (Kellogg Commission, 1999) have offered alternate visions...

    • From “Preflection” to Reflection: Building Quality Practices in Academic Service-Learning
      (pp. 29-50)
      Nicole C. Springer and Karen McKnight Casey

      Service-learning is taking the academic world by storm. Evidence of national and international interest in service-learning and civic engagement abounds in the numbers and types of scholastic publications, dedicated conferences, seminars, colloquia, and awards, as well as web-based and other online resources such as clearing houses and electronic mailing lists. Campus Compact, the premier organization for service learning and civic engagement in higher education, celebrated its twentieth anniversary in October 2006. This was a milestone anniversary that spoke to the appreciation of its work. Campus Compact has encouraged campuses across the United States to build cultures of civic engagement and...

    • The New Landscape of Engaged Scholarship: How Does Online Education Play a Role?
      (pp. 51-64)
      Craig D. Weidemann and Michael J. Offterman

      Engaged scholarship has focused on teaching, research, and service within the concrete landscape of the university and its students, constituencies, and communities. The online landscape opens new opportunities for formerly location-bound students and faculty to work in virtual communities, engage in scholarship based in social networking, co-create course content, and involve external as well as university-based experts in curricular choices and assessment. Key issues surround the context and assessment of curricula and engagement at public, fully online, and other universities.

      When Ernest Boyer (1990) posited that “the 1990s will be the decade of undergraduate education” (p. xiii), he could not...

    • Expertise, the Cooperative Extension Service, and Engaged Scholarship
      (pp. 65-74)
      Thomas G. Coon

      One of the earliest models of university engagement in the United States is the Cooperative Extension Service (CES). The CES was created by an act of Congress (Smith-Lever Act, 1914) as a partnership between the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state governments through their land-grant universities. Originally termed the agricultural extension service, its intent was to “diffuse among the people of the United States useful and practical information on subjects relating to agriculture and home economics, and to encourage application of the same.” The service was quickly embraced by universities across the nation. In fact, many states had already...

    • Engaged Scholarship and Transformative Regional Engagement
      (pp. 75-98)
      Nancy E. Franklin and Timothy V. Franklin

      In 1990, Ernest Boyer called upon the academy to redefine the priorities of faculty in the context of four forms of scholarship: discovery, integration, application, and teaching (Boyer, 1990). In this taxonomy, the scholarship of application was intended to focus faculty members on “scholarly service” through two-way disciplinary-associated interactions with people and problems in the world beyond the campus (p. 23). So, in an important sense, engaged scholarship is concerned with the scholarly service of higher education’s core asset—the faculty.

      However, in a larger sense, the notion of “engaged scholarship” can be applied to institutions of higher education at...


    • Measuring, Assessing, and Accrediting Engaged Scholarship
      (pp. 101-104)
      Cathy Burack

      There are two informal tests one can use to determine the extent to which an idea or initiative has gained traction. One is to note if there is still support and momentum after the primary champions of the idea cease to assume that role (e.g., the president who leaves the institution, the committee that is dissolved). The other test is the presence of systems that measure, assess, and accredit. In this section, you will see that this is indeed the case with regard to engaged scholarship.

      In some ways this section represents a story of higher education’s reclamation of its...

    • Measuring Institutional Engagement and Faculty-Based Engaged Scholarship
      (pp. 105-130)
      Crystal G. Lunsford, Burton A. Bargerstock and Philip A. Greasley

      American colleges and universities have historically contributed to the public good in ways that extend beyond traditional undergraduate and graduate education and the production of knowledge (Veysey, 1965). Whether by way of continuing education programs, cooperative extension, international development, service-learning, or faculty service to public bodies, higher education has long promoted service for the public good. Over the past two decades, the conceptualization of such activities has evolved from one of public service to scholarly engagement, the latter emphasizing the importance of reciprocal and mutually beneficial relationships between university participants and the broader society (Kellogg Commission on the Future of...

    • Engaged Scholarship: Perspectives from Psychology
      (pp. 131-148)
      Jill N. Reich and Paul D. Nelson

      As the science of mind and behavior, having evolved from such disparate disciplines as philosophy, physiology, and physics (James, 1890), psychology has had a predominant focus on the individual or certain characteristics of the individual as its primary unit of analysis. When this focus includes relationships with others, of course, the units of analysis can range from dyads, through small groups, to larger organization or community contexts. In whatever context psychologists have worked, the discipline’s predominant methodological paradigms have been described as experimental and correlational (Cronbach, 1957) and its predominant cultures as scientific and humanistic (Kimble, 1984). These epistemological differences...

    • Public Sociology in the Age of Obama
      (pp. 149-160)
      Michael Burawoy

      This is my first visit to Japan, so it is with great trepidation that I address you on the subject of public sociology. As an ethnographer, I am acutely aware of the dangers of bringing to you an idea formulated in a very different national context. Transmitting the notion of sociology is difficult enough, subject as it is to varying national traditions, but when to this is added the multiple meanings of “public,” we face apparently insurmountable problems. From Koichi Hasegawa’sConstructing Civil Society in Japan,I know that the Japanese term for “public” is shot through with ambiguity, having...

    • Engagement and the Carnegie Classification System
      (pp. 161-176)
      Dwight E. Giles Jr., Lorilee R. Sandmann and John Saltmarsh

      This chapter focuses on assessing and rewarding engaged scholarship using the 2006 Carnegie voluntary community engagement classification process. This process has been analyzed by those who developed and implemented it (Driscoll, 2008) and by scholars of engagement in higher education (Sandmann, Thornton, & Jaeger, 2009; Saltmarsh, Giles, Ward, & Buglione, 2009). Here, we present some of this scholarship and our analyses of the question of assessment and the promotion of institutional change in the area of engaged scholarship. Of particular importance in understanding how the Carnegie classified institutions are practicing engagement is how and if they are rewarding engaged faculty...

    • Evaluating the Community Impact of Higher Education Civic Engagement
      (pp. 177-196)
      Randy Stoecker, Mary Beckman and Bo Hee Min

      For at least the past two decades, institutions of higher learning have been promoting the concept of civic engagement. That has meant supporting faculty and students to become more involved in local community issues through such activities as service-learning and community-based research. There is very little evidence, however, that institutions are systematically documenting the outcomes of their contributions and, consequently, little evidence that it matters. Such work can indeed make a contribution, but the evidence of effectiveness is scant.

      In this chapter, we explore why colleges and universities have not devoted more resources to understanding the community impacts of civic...


    • Community-Campus Partnership Development
      (pp. 199-200)
      Sarena D. Seifer

      How do we combine the knowledge and wisdom in communities and in academic institutions to solve the major health, social, and economic challenges facing our society? How do we ensure that community-driven social change is central to service-learning and community-based participatory research? Collectively, the chapters in this section seek to answer these questions by holding partners accountable for achieving meaningful and sustainable outcomes at both community and institutional levels.

      The section begins with a chapter that is authored by a group of experienced community partners who believe deeply in the value of community-campus partnerships but have equally deep concerns about...

    • Achieving the Promise of Community–Higher Education Partnerships: Community Partner Get Organized
      (pp. 201-222)
      Community Partner Summit Group

      Partnerships between communities and higher educational institutions as a strategy for social change are gaining recognition and momentum. Despite being formed with the best of intentions, however, authentic partnerships are very difficult to achieve. Although academic partners have extensively documented their experiences and lessons learned, the voices of community partners are largely missing. We believe that if true partnerships are to be achieved, community partners must harness their own experiences, lessons learned, and collective wisdom into a national, organized effort to address this issue.

      Twenty-three experienced community partners from across the country convened for the Community Partner Summit held April...

    • Standards of Practice in Community Engagement
      (pp. 223-234)
      David J. Maurrasse

      The context in which institutions of higher education sit lays the foundation for the evolution of community engagement into a more central component in the strategic thinking and planning of colleges and universities. In other words, the interdependence between institutions of higher education and their localities and regions has become increasingly apparent on and off campuses. As the theory and practice of higher education’s community engagement matures, awareness around what it takes to bring about effective mutually beneficial partnerships emerges.

      It is difficult to fully generalize across the entire higher education industry, as the variation in types and settings among...

    • Action Research as Systems Change
      (pp. 235-256)
      Pennie Foster-Fishman and Erin R. Watson

      For those of us interested in using research as a tool for social change, action research is a valuable, if not necessary tool in our methodological tool belt. Action research (AR) involves a collaborative process between the researcher and members of a targeted community (e.g., organization, neighborhood, small city) where both the insiders (community members) and outsiders (researchers) co-generate meaning, mutually design actions, and jointly assess the impact of these interventions. Of course, many other community-based research methods include such a collaborative process (e.g., community-based participatory research, joint insider-outsider research). What sets action research apart from this collective set of...

    • Mixed Methods in Collaborative Inquiry
      (pp. 257-274)
      Miles McNall, Diane M. Doberneck and Laurie Van Egeren

      Community-campus partnerships for research provide critical avenues for engaged scholarship. Increasingly in such partnerships, campus faculty and community partners work in a collaborative manner to identify issues of mutual concern or interest, design interventions, assess impacts, disseminate research findings, and decide on appropriate courses of action given the research findings. Moreover, a progressively diverse array of methods has been deployed within these research partnerships in order to gain a better understanding of the issues and concerns under study.

      In recent decades, the literature on collaborative approaches to research and mixed methods has grown by leaps and bounds. In this chapter,...

    • From Community-Based Participatory Research to Policy Change
      (pp. 275-294)
      Meredith Minkler and Nicholas Freudenberg

      Community-partnered approaches to research have gained currency in many academic disciplines in recent years, both in the United States and internationally. This increased interest has occurred in part in response to growing recognition that the complexity of many of today’s health and social problems often make them poorly suited to traditional outside expert-driven research and interventions (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2008). Within the academy, growing interest in community-academic research partnerships also has emerged as part of the movement for a more engaged scholarship.

      In this chapter, “community-based participatory research” (CBPR) is used as an umbrella term for a wide variety of...

    • Collaborative Approaches to Community Change
      (pp. 295-310)
      Penny A. Pasque

      These words are from a community partner, Glenn (a pseudonym), as he passionately speaks to a national conference of approximately 150 university presidents, legislators, faculty, administrators, national association representatives, students, and community partners. The focus of this gathering was on community engagement and strengthening higher education for the public good. Glenn reflects on known relationships between community and university partners as “shows” and stresses the importance of establishing strong, collaborative relationships with honest dialogue about barriersbeforediscussing strategies for change. (For the purposes of this chapter, “university” is meant to be inclusive of all higher and postsecondary institution.) Glenn...

    • Documenting Impacts: Engaged Research Centers and Community Change
      (pp. 311-332)
      Philip Nyden and Stephen Percy

      In the past two decades, colleges and universities across the nation, particularly those located in urban and metropolitan areas, have witnessed the creation and growth of a new type of research enterprise: the engaged research center (ERC). These new academic enterprises differ from traditional campus research centers with regard to research focus, practice, and outcomes. The purpose of this article is to explore these new research centers and their contributions to both university-community engagement and the quality of life in the communities, regions, and states in which they are located.

      The research focus of traditional urban research centers has generally...


    • National Organizational Models
      (pp. 335-338)
      Lorilee R. Sandmann and Melvin B. Hill Jr.

      Harvard sociologist Daniel Bell points out that “[what is] social today becomes political tomorrow, and economic [in costs and consequences] the day after.” For a social and policy issue, the formation of professional and national organizations signals movement from the emergent part of its life cycle to increasing institutionalization and professionalization. Over the past two decades, several “issue groups” or organizations have developed specifically in response to the growth of interest in community-university engagement. These have appeared in addition to a number of existing organizations and disciplinary associations that have begun directly addressing engagement through special sections or task forces....

    • Campus Compact—Engaged Scholarship for the Public Good
      (pp. 339-348)
      Dean P. McGovern and Maureen F. Curley

      In the mid-1980s,Timemagazine, reporting on a recently released study of incoming college students, quoted a participant, “I want to go to college to become a doctor . . . so I can make some money and then take it easy” (Bowen, 1986). We learned from this study and others like it, from pundits, and from critics that education—and specifically higher education—had become a “troubled institution” (Boyer, 1987).

      At the core of the problem, according to certain observers at the time, was that colleges and universities had lost clear direction, purpose, and mission. Students were stricken with...

    • Small Partnership Leads into National Outreach Scholarship Conference
      (pp. 349-360)
      Karen S. Bruns

      In 2001, three land-grant universities formed a partnership “to provide a framework to facilitate communication, cooperation, and mutually beneficial collaborative research and programming.” Their shared vision of the program collaborative was to “develop and deliver programs and educational resources that support the development and advancement of the knowledge behind successful outreach initiatives in higher education” (Memorandum of Understanding,2001).

      The outreach and engagement leaders who entered into this partnership included Bobby D. Moser, Vice-President Agricultural Administration and University Outreach at The Ohio State University; James H. Ryan, Vice-President Outreach and Cooperative Extension at The Pennsylvania State University; and Kevin Reilly,...

    • Imagining America: Engaged Scholarship for the Arts, Humanities, and Design
      (pp. 361-372)
      Robin Goettel and Jamie Haft

      In 2001, a group of University of Michigan undergraduates spent much of an icy winter well away from the comforts of their Ann Arbor campus. Instead, they were conducting research in senior centers and community centers around the Michigan Central Railroad Station, a key transit point for the Great Migration, in which millions of African Americans moved to the industrial northern states in search of employment and education, and an important landmark in ethnically diverse southwest Detroit. Under the guidance of history faculty and a playwright from Detroit’s Matrix Theater, the students conducted oral histories and writing workshops, unveiling the...

    • CEOs for Cities: Engaged Scholarship for Urban Development
      (pp. 373-380)
      Carol Coletta

      CEOs for Cities, a national cross-sector network of urban leaders dedicating to building and sustaining the next generation of great American cities, has always recognized the contribution universities can make to vital urban economies. CEOs for Cities was founded, in part, as a response to the changing needs in urban leadership. Realizing that new partnerships were required for urban success, we were the first (and still the only) organization whose partners work across issues and sectors to develop responses to the opportunities and challenges cities face. Since its inception in 2000, university presidents have sat alongside mayors, corporate leaders, and...

    • HENCE: A Federation to Advance Community Engagement across Higher Education
      (pp. 381-392)
      Lorilee R. Sandmann and David J. Weerts

      The Higher Education Network for Community Engagement (HENCE) arose from a demonstrated high level of commitment to cooperation across diverse engagement-related organizations in order to encourage the further development and improvement of community engagement. Now a virtual federation of higher education community engagement leadership organizations, HENCE serves as an incubator for collaborative activities to increase impact on the field, reduce duplication, address gaps in activities and resources, advocate for national support for engagement, and promote consistency in practices and policies related to community engagement.

      America’s colleges and universities have a long tradition of connecting their mission of research and teaching...

    • A Catalyst for Research: The International Association for Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement
      (pp. 393-406)
      Sherril B. Gelmon

      As the concept of engagement becomes more widely recognized and accepted within higher education, there is an increasing emphasis on the scholarship of such work. For many years, the venues that offered established and developing scholars an outlet for the dissemination of scholarly work related to engagement were limited. Nor was there a place where graduate students could seek feedback on their work or meet potential mentors. The creation of the International Association for Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement (IARSLCE) has provided a professional membership association with the sole purpose of promoting research on engagement and related pedagogies and...


    • The Future Landscape
      (pp. 409-410)
      Theodore R. Alter

      Looking forward, what are the new ideas, what are the new perspectives, what are the new initiatives, that hold promise for positively shaping the future landscape and promise of engaged scholarship and community-university engagement? In this section, several such ideas, perspectives, and initiatives are described and discussed in broad concept and rich detail, provoking thinking, stretching understanding, and illuminating opportunity.

      Robert Bringle and Julie Hatcher, both at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, focus on students and engagement in higher education. They note that engagement with communities adds value to the extent that it enriches student learning and fosters their personal...

    • Student Engagement Trends over Time
      (pp. 411-430)
      Robert G. Bringle and Julie A. Hatcher

      Student engagement is an encompassing term that can include a number of dimensions that cut across curricular and co-curricular activities. In higher education, engagement is valued to the extent that it supports student learning and development. This chapter examines patterns of students’ engagement in the community that take place through coursework or out-of-class activities. This analysis begins with a brief discussion of engaged learning and definitional issues related to student engagement. Then, an overview of the trends to date is provided; related trends are discussed in other chapters in this handbook (e.g., the chapters by Fretz; Saltmarsh; Ramaley; Vogel, Fichtenberg,...

    • Developing Higher Education Administrators
      (pp. 431-446)
      Jeri L. Childers and Theodore J. Settle

      Today, developing and implementing an institutional strategy for engagement is vital for developing the capacity of the university to respond to the needs of its various publics, to educate the whole student, and to realize the potential and promise of its scholars and their impact on society. Core to developing, implementing, and institutionalizing this engagement plan is the development of university leaders for the twenty-first century which necessarily means enhancing the institutional capacity to engage with community partners and to support engaged scholars.

      To respond to these challenges, Virginia Tech developed a week-longEngagement Academy for University Leadersto help...

    • Developing Emerging Engagement Scholars in Higher Education
      (pp. 447-458)
      Angela Allen and Tami L. Moore

      A primary purpose of research institutions is to structure educational programs that target contemporary and future needs (Altbach, 1999). Several leading scholars, in their discussions of the faculty role in engagement, have begun to recommend the preparation of graduate students for engagement as a supplement to their disciplinary training (Bloom-field, 2006; Gaff, 2005; O’Meara, 2005; Rice, 2005). Austin and Barnes (2005) specifically discuss how doctoral programs can prepare graduate students for faculty careers with a focus on “the public good” (p. 272). Basing their discussion on a summary of highlights from recent studies regarding graduate education, the authors recommend that...

    • UPBEAT: University Engagement through Virtuous Knowledge Sharing and Academic Staff Development
      (pp. 459-478)
      James A. Powell

      Over the past decade, the University of Salford has responded in a unique way to the national and global challenges it has faced. This reflects the particular academic strength of the staff and the situation in which it found itself in the middle to late 1990s. This strategy, developed in the light of a changing environment, focuses in particular on its development of Academic Enterprise (Æ) as a means of promoting better work not only with industry and commerce, but also with other stakeholders, such as those in civil and voluntary organizations, in the community at large, and not least,...

    • Coming to Engagement: Critical Reflection and Transformation
      (pp. 479-492)
      Frank A. Fear

      This chapter is an extension of the bookComing to Critical Engagement(Fear, Rosaen, Bawden, & Foster-Fishman, 2006), a volume that I co-authored with a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) scholars. Over a period of nearly five years we analyzed our engagement experiences (we had not worked previously on a common project) and considered how our engagement thinking and practices had changed over time. That work set the stage for developing a common frame of reference about engagement: formulating an engagement vocabulary (e.g., engaged learning, a concept to be defined later in this chapter) and articulating a discourse,...

  9. Contributors
    (pp. 493-508)
  10. Index
    (pp. 509-520)