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Phylogeography of California

Phylogeography of California: An Introduction

Kristina A. Schierenbeck
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: 1
Pages: 368
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  • Book Info
    Phylogeography of California
    Book Description:

    Phylogeography of Californiaexamines the evolution of a variety of taxa-ancient and recent, native and migratory-to elucidate evolutionary events both major and minor that shaped the distribution, radiation, and speciation of the biota of California. The book also interprets evolutionary history in a geological context and reviews new and emerging phylogeographic patterns. Focusing on a region that is defined by physical and political boundaries, Kristina A. Schierenbeck provides a phylogeographic survey of California's diverse flora and fauna according to their major organismal groups. Life history and ecological characteristics, which play prominent roles in the various outcomes for respective clades, are also considered throughout the work. Supporting scholars and researchers who study evolutionary diversification, the book analyzes research that helps assess one of the major challenges in phylogeographic studies: understanding changes in population structures shaped by geological and geographical processes. California is one of only twenty-five acknowledged biological hotspots worldwide, and the phylogeographic history of the state can be extrapolated to study other regions in western North America. Further consideration is given to implications for conservation, recommendations concerning the biogeographic provinces that roughly define the state of California, and predictions related to climate change.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95924-8
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)

    • 1 Introduction
      (pp. 3-20)

      The geographic province we now call California was and in some places remains every bit as rugged and inhospitable as Webster described. The geographic parameters preventing extensive European expansion before the nineteenth century are also the landscape on which the diverse flora and fauna of this region have evolved. The goal of this book is to examine and interpret the evolutionary history of the biota in California in a geologic context, as well as subsequent patterns in regional diversity that have emerged across combined phylogenies. A number of phylogeographic patterns have indeed emerged; some previously identified are expanded here in...

    • 2 Historical Processes That Shaped California
      (pp. 21-36)

      The geologic history of California provides the basis for its present geologic complexity. The position of California along the continental margin gives a physical context that began when the earth’s crust was formed and has resulted in rapid geologic change and effective biotic isolation from much of North America.

      When the first sedimentary rocks were forming 3.8 Ga (billion years ago), California was nothing but unformed crust at different latitudes and longitudes under the sea and the last common ancestor of Archaea and Bacteria was diverging. Stromatolites, mats of Cyanobacteria (Domain Bacteria), are present in the fossil record from 3.5...

    • 3 The Cenozoic Era: Paleogene and Neogene Periods (65–2.6 Ma)
      (pp. 37-54)

      The Cenozoic Era (65 Ma–present) comprises three periods, Paleogene (65–23 Ma), Neogene (23–2.6 Ma), and Quaternary (2.6 Ma–present). The Paleogene (Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene Epochs) and the Neogene (Miocene and Pliocene Epochs) were formerly included in the Tertiary Period, but the term Tertiary is no longer formally recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The Quaternary Period is discussed in separate chapters for each of the major clades considered here and includes the Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. During the Paleocene Epoch (65–58 Ma), the Klamath Range had separated from the Sierra Nevada, the terranes that...

    • 4 Quaternary Geologic and Climatic Changes
      (pp. 55-64)

      The Quaternary was a time of dramatic evolutionary change due to strong climatic latitudinal gradients (Bennett 2004). Oceanic biotic exchanges occurred between the Arctic, the eastern Pacific, and the equator, particularly in times of high sea levels. Prior to the eventual cutoff of the Pacific from the Caribbean by the Isthmus of Panama (3 Ma), there was some transfer of fauna such as fishes in the Gobiidae (gobies) and Labridae (wrasses). Fossil evidence supports the west coast as an area that supported speciation throughout the Cenozoic. Comparatively, there has been less extinction on the west coast than the Atlantic or...


    • 5 Conifers
      (pp. 67-76)

      The earliest fossil record of conifers is from the Carboniferous about 300 Ma. The Pinophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Cycadophyta all developed during this time, likely in Asia. Important adaptations that preceded the development of these clades are the development of vasculature to reduce dependence on water, pollen to allow the movement of sperm without water, and seeds, increasing propagule mobility. Some members of the Cupressaceae, such asSequoia sempervirens, Sequoiadendron giganteum, andMetasequoia glyptostroboides, were present in California during the Cretaceous and throughout the Paleogene. As Quaternary climates became cooler and drier,Sequoia sempervirensretreated to the coast,Sequoiadendron giganteumbecame...

    • 6 Flowering Plants
      (pp. 77-102)

      Based on molecular and fossil data, the Anthophyta arose in the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, possibly from relatives in the Glossopteridales or Bennettitales, but did not radiate until the Cretaceous (Bell et al. 2010; Friis et al. 2011; Doyle 2012). The Rosinae (or core eudicots, except for the Gunnerales) contains the unplaced Dilleniaceae and the Pentapetalae, the latter of which includes about 70 percent of all flowering plant species (Moore et al. 2010). The Pentapetalae contains two major clades, the Superasteridae, evolving 107–98 Ma, and the Superrosids, evolving 111–103 Ma. The Caryophyllales (Superasteridae) originated about 71–63...

    • 7 Insects
      (pp. 103-116)

      Based on extrapolations from global species estimates, there are approximately 100,000 insect species in California, of which about 12 percent are considered to be endemic (Kimsey 1996). California has 31 of 32 orders of insects that occur north of Mexico and about 30 percent of all insects known to the United States and Canada. Despite the established species richness, many new species of insects are still being described from California.

      An examination of 770 species, most of them insects, reveals that there are more disjuncts and thus historical dispersals between eastern Asia and western North America than between eastern Asia...

    • 8 Fishes
      (pp. 117-134)

      Fossil records of western North American contain primarily archaic fishes. Fossil fish are known from the late Triassic in the Hosselkus limestone formation in Shasta County (Acrodus, Hybodontidae) and in the Panache Hills of Fresno County from the late Cretaceous (Enchodus, Enchodontidae). Incomplete skeletons from the late Cretaceous are known from Alameda County and the Chico Formation in Butte County. Modern fishes do not appear in western North America until the late Paleocene and early Eocene, with diversification increasing in the Oligocene. Catostomidae (suckers) are present in Nevada and British Columbia by the Miocene, and ancestral fish fauna in the...

    • 9 Amphibians
      (pp. 135-146)

      Amphibians were among the first vertebrates to colonize land in the Devonian, approximately 375 Ma, and diversified in the Carboniferous and Permian, subsequently declining with the evolution and increase of reptiles. The three major, extant clades are Anura (frogs), Caudata (salamanders), and Gymnophiona (Caecilians), which diversified prior to the breakup of Pangaea (San Mauro et al. 2005). The first Anuran fossil (Prosalirus bitis) known from North America is from early Jurassic deposits in Arizona, and by the Paleocene, Anuran fossils are common in western North America (Holman 2003). The earliest fossil Caudata in North America are from 25 Ma (van...

    • 10 Reptiles
      (pp. 147-158)

      Technically a paraphyletic clade, due to the placement of Chelonii, “Reptilia” is currently the preferred term that includes Anaspida (Chelonii or turtles, terrapins, and tortoises) and Eureptilia, which includes Aves, Crocodilia, Squamata (lizards and snakes), and Rhynchocephalia (1 species in New Zealand) (Modesto and Anderson 2004). The Squamata contains 61 families with 9,004 species. The Reptilian clade Iguania is nested within Squamata and forms the lineages Acrodonta, which originated in the Old World, and Pleurodonta, a predominantly New World clade. Pleurodonta is monophyletic. Twenty-nine nuclear protein-coding genes from 47 igauanian and 29 outgroup taxa analyzed via maximum likelihood and with...

    • 11 Birds
      (pp. 159-170)

      Of the 233 families and over 10,000 species of birds and 914 breeding birds that occur in North America, California has 641 species, 2 of which have been extirpated and 15 of which are introduced. Thirty-three species or subspecies are listed by the state or federal government as threatened or endangered.

      Conservative estimates of fossil and DNA sequence data indicate birds radiated in the late Cretaceous (Clarke et al. 2005; Slack et al. 2006). Independent lineages represented in western North America 95–85 Ma includeHesperornis, Ichthyornis, and members of the Enantiornithes (extinct primitive birds), but none survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene...

    • 12 Mammals
      (pp. 171-196)

      The mammal fauna of the North American Cenozoic was influenced by several important events, both biological and geological. Periodic and extensive connections with Asia via the Bering Strait began as early as 40 Ma in the Eocene and continued episodically into the late Pleistocene, with peaks in the Miocene (21–18 Ma and 8.7 Ma) and Plio-Pleistocene (5–2 Ma) (Sutcliffe 1985; Zhanxiang 2003; Ge et al. 2012) (Figure 12.1). Three mammal ages are distinguished in the North American Plio-Pleistocene: the Blancan (4.75–1.9 Ma), the Irvingtonian (1.9–0.250 Ma), and the Rancholabrean (0.250–0.011 Ma).

      At 3–2 Ma,...

    • 13 Marine Mammals
      (pp. 197-206)

      The Cetacea and Pinnipedia are well represented in the California Current System (Checkley and Barth 2009). Marine-dwelling members of the Carnivora include some members of the Mustelidae and Pinnipedia clades.

      Within the Mustelidae, all otters are sister toMustela(minks) andNeovison(true weasels). The genusEnhydra(sea otters) emerged from within the Old World river otter clade, but the relationship ofEnhydraandHydrictis, the spotted-neck otter native to sub-Saharan Africa, remains unresolved using Bayesian methods (Koepfli et al. 2008).Enhydra lutrisis a densely furred animal historically ranging throughout the eastern Pacific from Japan, around the North Pacific...


    • 14 Consistent Phylogeographic Patterns across Taxa and Major Evolutionary Events
      (pp. 209-232)

      As most of California remained underwater until the Paleocene, most of the early organisms are marine. Insects were likely the first terrestrial organisms to colonize California during the Paleozoic, followed by nonflowering plant taxa in the Coniferophyta, Equistaceae, Pteridophyta, Lycophyta, and Pteridospermatophyta. In the Mesozoic, floristically, conifers and extinct lineages were dominant. But by the Eocene, climates were drier, and the flora was gradually replaced by broad-leaved deciduous forests, similar to those found in the southeastern United States today. North America and Eurasia were connected across the North Atlantic during the late Cretaceous, and some broad-leaved species then present in...

    • 15 Conservation Implications and Recommendations
      (pp. 233-256)

      Phylogeographic studies can be very useful in defining significant evolutionary units for conservation purposes (Roderick 1996). When concordance among divergent major clades is identified, phylogeographic studies can provide the basis for major conservation efforts in particular regions (Avise et al. 1987). Many regions of high biological diversity are in need of conservation efforts that will strengthen legal protection, establish or strengthen migratory corridors, and increase the size of parks and preserves. Anthropomorphic changes to the evolutionary process that can lead to loss of biological diversity include a loss of habitat or reduction in range size, habitat fragmentation, hybridization of nonlocal...

  7. Bibliography
    (pp. 257-316)
  8. Index
    (pp. 317-352)