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India and Pakistan

India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict or Cooperation?

Stanley Wolpert
Copyright Date: 2010
Edition: 1
Pages: 144
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  • Book Info
    India and Pakistan
    Book Description:

    Beginning in 1947, when "India and Pakistan were born to conflict," renowned India scholar Stanley Wolpert provides an authoritative, accessible primer on what is potentially the world's most dangerous crisis. He concisely distills sixty-three years of complex history, tracing the roots of the relationship between these two antagonists, explaining the many attempts to resolve their disputes, and assessing the dominant political leaders. While the tragic Partition left many urgent problems, none has been more difficult than the problem over Kashmir, claimed by both India and Pakistan. This intensely divisive issue has triggered two conventional wars, killed some 100,000 Kashmiris, and almost ignited two nuclear wars since 1998, when both India and Pakistan openly emerged as nuclear-weapon states. In addition to providing a comprehensive perspective on the origin and nature of this urgent conflict, Wolpert examines all the proposed solutions and concludes with a road map for a brighter future for South Asia.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-94800-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Maps
    (pp. ix-x)
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    More than six decades of freedom have quadrupled the population of India and transformed its democracy from the impoverished state of post–British India’s Raj into the world’s newest Asian superpower. India’s military power and economy now approach those of the United States of America and China. The same six decades have diminished Pakistan from its promising origins as the world’s largest Muslim state into an almost failed fragment of itself, more than half of its population having broken away to become independent Bangladesh in 1971. The only way in which India and Pakistan have remained virtually unchanged after sixty-three...

  6. ONE The Historic Roots of the Problem
    (pp. 7-17)

    India and Pakistan were born to conflict generated by the partition of British India in August 1947. Britain’s last viceroy, Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten (known as “Dickie”), who had little understanding of India, foolishly halved the timetable allotted to him by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee’s Labour cabinet to try to resolve the conflicts that divided India’s political leaders and get them to agree to form a single federal dominion of independent India. Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the leaders of the Indian National Congress party, had always wanted such a federal union. Since 1940, however, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and...

  7. TWO The First Indo-Pakistani War
    (pp. 18-28)

    The earliest written history of South Asia, Kashmir’s ancientRājataranginī(River of Kings), dating back to 1148 c.e., records both the wisdom of Kashmir’s greatest rulers and the cruelty of its most violent.¹ Its first author, Kalhaṇa, commences by bowing to the Hindu Lord Shiva, whose many consorts include the mother goddess Parvati, one of whose terrestrial names was Kashmira. India’s great Buddhist emperor Aśoka, who reigned over Mauryan India from 269 to 232 b.c.e., founded Kashmir’s capital of Srinagar on the banks of the river Vitasta during his brief visit to that peaceful valley. The lovely city, which soon...

  8. THREE The Second Indo-Pakistani War
    (pp. 29-36)

    The UN cease-fire line in Kashmir could not prevent heavy artillery from firing over it or Pakistani infiltrators from crossing it. Nor were there ever enough UN monitors to do more than report violations of the cease-fire they were employed to enforce. The United Nations had no army of its own, after all, nor money enough to keep more than a few monitors posted at distant stations along that porous line.

    Pakistan’s chief of army staff in 1957, General Muhammad Ayub Khan, was furious when India announced that the adoption of Jammu and Kashmir’s new constitution made that state an...

  9. FOUR The Third Indo-Pakistani War and the Birth of Bangladesh
    (pp. 37-45)

    From its birth, Pakistan was plagued by the insoluble division of its territory into two wings, with a thousand miles of northern India between them. The Pakistan Resolution unanimously adopted by Jinnah’s Muslim League in Lahore in 1940 had been drafted by a committee chaired by the League’s most popular Bengali leader, A. K. Fazlul Haq. The most important section of that resolution, which never mentioned Pakistan by name, stated that

    no constitutional plan would be workable in this country [British India] or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz., that geographically contiguous...

  10. FIVE From the Simla Summit to Zia’s Coup
    (pp. 46-53)

    Bhutto was clever enough to know just how badly Pakistan had been beaten and how weak it really was, despite the brave words he used in trying to lift the spirits of his defeated countrymen. But he also knew that the fortunes and destinies of nations often change quickly, and that in some respects losing Bangladesh was a great advantage for Pakistan. Though the country’s eastern wing’s exports of jute had earned most of Pakistan’s hard currency during their decades linked together, its ten million Hindus had always seemed to Bhutto a potential fifth column, and, indeed, all Bengalis seemed...

  11. SIX Afghanistan’s Impact on Indo-Pakistani Relations
    (pp. 54-62)

    From the dawn of Indian history, the Afghan Plateau has been a springboard to the conquest of India by martial raiders from the West. Indo-Aryan tribes first came down the Khyber and Bolan Passes over the Hindu Kush as early as 1500 b.c.e. Alexander the Great led his Macedonian army over the Khyber, crossing the Indus in 326 b.c.e., followed by Perso-Afghans, Central Asian Scythians, and Kushanas, Turks, and Mughals. The Muslim conquerors of Punjab, Kashmir, Sind, and the North-West Frontier converted Hindus of that region to Islam, or forced them to flee south. Though the British ultimately won control...

  12. SEVEN Pakistan’s Proxy War and Kashmir’s Azaadi Revolution
    (pp. 63-70)

    With no Soviet troops left to fight in Afghanistan, Pakistan’s ISI vigorously focused its attention on Kashmir, encouraging unemployed mujahideen to help them liberate it from the steel grip of India’s strongly entrenched army in the Vale. Indira Gandhi’s last decade in power had proved as tragic for Kashmir as it did for Punjab. Her victory over Pakistan in the Bangladesh War and the success of India’s first plutonium explosion in 1974 had raised her to so powerful a position, not only in New Delhi but throughout the world, that Indira Gandhi seemed to have lost her judgment, and certainly...

  13. EIGHT Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict
    (pp. 71-80)

    Prolonged secret efforts by India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons reached their dramatic fruition, to the anxious concern of the rest of the world, in May 1998. On 11 May, India triggered three powerful nuclear bombs under the same portion of the Rajasthan desert in which it had first exploded a single bomb twenty-four years earlier.¹ Two more bombs were exploded at the same underground station two days after the first three, sending greater shock waves rumbling through India’s desert sands, rattling Pakistan’s former capital of Karachi. India’s Prime Minister Atul Bihari Vajpayee, whose Hindu-first Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)...

  14. NINE The Stalled Peace Process
    (pp. 81-93)

    In December 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee met President General Musharraf on the eve of their annual session of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in Islamabad, agreeing to a cease-fire along the Line of Control in Kashmir. This important agreement launched the composite peace process for South Asia, designed to put an end to all major conflicts between India and Pakistan. Several positive measures have since been agreed upon, the most symbolically encouraging of which is the Peace Bus that started to travel between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad in 2005, filled with happy Kashmiris, many of whom had not...

  15. TEN Potential Solutions to the Kashmir Conflict
    (pp. 94-106)

    A permanent peaceful resolution to Kashmir’s conflict will require solemn diplomatic agreements between India and Pakistan that have the full support of Kashmir’s most popular leaders. For ten years after the Kashmir problem was first brought to the UN Security Council by India, heroic efforts were made by the UNCIP’s global diplomats to resolve the conflict through a comprehensive or limited plebiscite supervised by UN monitors, or by the division of Jammu and Kashmir into its dominant ethno-religious units—Hindu Jammu and Buddhist Ladakh going to India, and the Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley to Pakistan.

    India’s repeated adamant refusal to accept...

  16. NOTES
    (pp. 107-112)
    (pp. 113-118)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 119-126)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 127-128)