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The Digital Jepson Manual

The Digital Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition, Thoroughly Revised and Expanded

Bruce G. Baldwin Convening Editor
Douglas H. Goldman
David J. Keil
Robert Patterson
Thomas J. Rosatti
Dieter H. Wilken
Jeffrey Greenhouse
Staci Markos
Richard L. Moe
Scott Simono
Margriet Wetherwax
Linda Ann Vorobik Principal Illustrator
Copyright Date: 2012
Edition: 2
Pages: 1600
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  • Book Info
    The Digital Jepson Manual
    Book Description:

    The second edition ofThe Jepson Manualthoroughly updates this acclaimed work, the single most comprehensive resource on California's amazingly diverse flora.The Jepson Manual,second edition, integrates the latest science with the results of intensive fieldwork, institutional collaboration, and efforts of hundreds of contributing authors into an essential reference on California's native and naturalized vascular plants. The second edition includes treatments of many newly described or discovered taxa and recently introduced plants, and reflects major improvements to plant taxonomy from phylogenetic studies. Nearly two-thirds of the 7,600 species, subspecies, and varieties the volume describes are now illustrated with diagnostic drawings. Geographic distributions, elevation ranges, flowering times, nomenclature, and the status of non-natives and native taxa of special concern have all been updated throughout. This edition also allows for identification of 240 alien taxa that are not fully naturalized but sometimes encountered. A new chapter on geologic, climatic, and vegetation history of California is also featured.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95137-2
    Subjects: Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-x)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xi)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    (pp. xv-xvi)
    (pp. xvii-xxii)
  6. Introduction

      (pp. 1-2)

      In the years since publication ofThe Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California, orTJM(1993), the study of evolutionary relationships and classification (systematics) has undergone revolutionary change, with rapid innovations in molecular biology, evolutionary methods and philosophy, and computer technology. Those changes have allowed for rapid progress in resolving evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) at deep- and fine-scale levels of divergence, with much focus on California’s vascular plants. At the same time, botanists have been targeting under-collected areas of California with high potential for harboring new diversity (e.g., on unusual soils, such as serpentine), aided by the rise of electronic databases...

      (pp. 3-12)

      Producing a field-portable manual on the California flora that is accessible to a wide audience requires balancing somewhat competing interests. For example, if technical terms are reduced in the interest of user-friendliness, more words are generally necessary to convey descriptive information and the book must be larger. In part to balance the increase in new plant taxa for California,The Jepson Manual, Second Edition(TJM 2) includes more technical terms — about 100 additional glossary entries — than were included inThe Jepson Manual, orTJM(1993), and has continued other space-saving conventions (also see Glossary introduction). These other conventions...

      (pp. 13-16)

      The abbreviations below were selected because they save considerable space, are relatively unambiguous, and are easily remembered. They are used throughout this book, with the exception of introductory material. Words not appearing below are not abbreviated, except that the official, two-letter, postal abbreviations for states in the United States are used. Abbreviations that appear in both lowercase and capital letters are indicated. Periods are used only where their absence could cause confusion. Entries referring to parts of California are marked with asterisks and discussed more fully under Geographic Subdivisions of California (p. 35).

      AB = Alberta, Canada e = east(ern)...

      (pp. 17-34)
      (pp. 35-41)

      Inclusion of geographic ranges of taxa, in addition to their habitats and elevational ranges, inThe Jepson Manual, Second Edition(TJM 2) provides an eco-geographic context for plant diversity that can aid in locating known populations of particular taxa and predicting where unknown populations may occur. Formulating such predictions can be a challenge, especially in a large state with the topographic complexity and climatic and habitat diversity of California, where sizable areas remain insufficiently explored botanically.

      To enhance the effectiveness of geographic data in predicting plant occurrences, a system was developed forThe Jepson Manual, orTJM(1993), that departed...

    • Hierarchical Outline of Geographic Subdivisions
      (pp. 42-42)
    • Geographic Subdivisions of California (map)
      (pp. 43-48)

      South Coast Ranges Subregion (SCoR). This subregion is bounded by the SnFrB to the north (boundary defined under the SnFrB), CCo to the west, SW to the south, and SnJV to the east. It is divided into two districts.

      Outer South Coast Ranges District(SCoRO). The boundary between this district and the Inner South Coast Ranges District (SCoRI) to the east runs along the Salinas River (approximated by Highway 101), from near Salinas south to about San Miguel in northern San Luis Obispo County, and from there up the Estrella River to the western edge of the SnJV near Shandon....

      (pp. 49-68)
      Constance I. Millar

      The dawning of the “Anthropocene,” the era of human-induced climate change, exposes what paleoscientists have documented for decades: earth’s environment—land, sea, air, and the organisms that inhabit these—is in a state of continual flux. Change is part of global reality, as is the relatively new and disruptive role humans superimpose on environmental and climatic flux. Historic dynamism is central to understanding how plant lineages exist in the present—their journey through time illuminates plant ecology and diversity, niche preferences, range distributions, and life-history characteristics, and is essential grounding for successful conservation planning.

      The editors of the currentManual...

    (pp. 69-108)
    David J. Keil

    As inThe Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California(1993), only vascular plants are treated inThe Jepson Manual, Second Edition. Vascular plants are a monophyletic group or clade that includes (1) Lycophytes (often superficially moss-like but with thicker scale-like leaves and axillary sporangia that are often borne in cones), (2) Ferns (most with sporangia borne on abaxial leaf surfaces, a few with sporangia on modified leaf segments or in hard sporangium cases), andEquisetum, with whorled scale leaves and sporangia grouped in terminal cones, (3) Gymnosperms (with seeds generally produced in cones of various forms), and (4) flowering plants...

  8. Taxonomic Treatments

      (pp. 109-112)

      Per, aquatic to terrestrial. ST: buried, corm-like, 2–3-lobed, corky, brown. LF: simple, in grass-like tufts, spirally arranged on st top, erect to spreading, < 30 cm, linear above base. SPORANGIUM: solitary, embedded in wide lf base, < 1 cm, ± covered by a translucent membrane, male or female; male spores > 10000, < 0.045 mm, ± bean-shaped, gray or brown in mass; female spores 20–200, 0.2–0.7 mm, spheric, white, ± smooth, ridged, tubercled, or prickly. 1 genus, 200+ spp.: worldwide. [Taylor et al. 1993 FNANM 2:64–75] Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.

      (Greek: evergreen, from habit of some...

    • FERNS
      (pp. 113-134)

      Rhizome-scale cells with lateral walls dark brown to ± black, surficial walls clear. LF: stipe ×-section with 1 X-shaped or 2 back-to-back C-shaped vascular strands; segment veins gen free. SPORANGIA: in linear [to oblong] sori along veins; indusia linear, opening away from veins; stalk cells in 1 row; spores elliptic, winged. 1 or 2 genera (most segregates now subsumed inAsplenium), 700 spp.: worldwide, esp trop. Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

      Pl in soil or on rocks; rhizome gen short-creeping to erect. LF: often tufted, gen glabrous; rachis often ± winged; blade simple or 1[many]-pinnate or forked; pinnae often more...

      (pp. 135-150)

      Shrub, tree, gen evergreen; monoecious or dioecious. LF: simple, cauline, alternate or opposite (either ± 4-ranked) or whorled in 3s (6-ranked), linear or scale-, awl- or needle-like (sometimes linear and awl-like on 1 pl, or on juvenile or injured pls), gen decurrent, covering young sts. POLLEN CONE: axillary or terminal. SEED CONE: ± fleshy to gen woody, gen hard at maturity; scales opposite or whorled, peltate or not. SEED: 1–many per scale, angled or lateral winged, gen wind-dispersed.n=11. 30 genera, 130+ spp.: ± worldwide, esp N.Am, Eurasia. [Farjon 2005 Monogr CupressaceaeSciadopitys. RBG, Kew] Incl (paraphyletic) Taxodiaceae. Taxa...

      (pp. 151-152)

      Per, aquatic, rhizomes in mud. ST: elongate, lfy, ends floating. LF: of 2 kinds: submersed, palmately dissected, opposite [whorled], short-petioled, not peltate; floating, simple, alternate, petioled, peltate, entire; stipules 0. INFL: fls 1 on long axillary peduncles, gen on or above water surface. FL: bisexual, parts ± free; sepals, petals each 3[4], alternate, persistent; stamens 3–6 or 18–36(51), filaments slender, anthers opening lengthwise; carpels [1]2–18, ovaries superior, 1-chambered, ovules [1]2–3[5]. FR: achene- or follicle-like, indehiscent. SEED: 1–3, aril 0. 2 genera, 6 spp.: temp, trop Am, Afr, e Asia, Australia; someCabombaspp. cult for...

      (pp. 153-155)

      Per, woody vine, [shrub], rhizomed, aromatic. ST: branched, occ ± underground. LF: simple, basal, cauline, or arising from rhizome, alternate; blade gen cordate, entire. INFL: fl gen 1, axillary or terminal. FL: bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 3, free or fused; petals gen 0; stamens gen 6 or 12, free or fused to style; pistil gen 1, ovary ± or partly inferior, chambers gen 6. FR: gen capsule. SEED: many. 5–8 genera, ± 500 spp.: mainly trop, warm temp; some cult (Aristolochia,Asarum,Saruma). [Neinhaus et al. 2005 Pl Syst Evol 250:7–26] Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce...

      (pp. 156-158)

      Per, submersed aquatic; overwintering on bottom as detached, dense shoot tips (winter buds); roots 0; monoecious; water-pollinated. ST: flexible with water currents, internodes clustered near tip. LF: whorled, gen compound, forked; segments linear, toothed; stipules 0; petiole 1–2 mm, translucent. INFL: reduced axillary cymes gen near shoot tips, ± sessile, 1–several per node, gen staminate below, pistillate above, or sometimes mixed at a node; fls 1–3 per cyme but appearing to be 1 subtended by calyx-like whorl of 8–15 bracts, bracts linear, lf-like, fused at base, toothed at tip, persistent in fr. FL: unisexual; perianth 0;...

      (pp. 159-1282)

      [Ann, per to] shrub, [tree], nodes gen swollen. LF: simple, gen opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. INFL: variable, with bracts, gen also bractlets. FL: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4–5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4–5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4–many-ovuled, chambers 1–2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1–2. FR: capsule, loculicidal, gen dehiscing explosively, valves 2. SEED: 1–4[+] each gen subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fr. 220 genera, 4000 spp.: esp trop; some orn:Justicia(Beloperone, shrimp-plant),Acanthus,...

      (pp. 1283-1519)

      Per, shrub, tree, fibrous succulent or not, from bulbs or rhizomes. ST: above ground or not, branched or not. LF: simple, deciduous or not, basal or in terminal rosettes, gen sessile, linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate or ovate, fibrous or not, thin and flexible or thick and rigid or succulent; margin entire, fine-serrate, dentate, or with filaments, tips rigid or flexible, with a spine or not. FL: bisexual; perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls, free or ± fused; stamens 6, ± fused to perianth, filaments often wide, succulent; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, style 1 (thick, poorly defined), stigma head-like...

  9. APPENDIX. Numerical Summary of Taxa Treated in The Jepson Manual, Second Edition
    (pp. 1520-1522)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 1523-1569)
  11. [Illustrations]
    (pp. 1570-1571)