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Early Life History of Marine Fishes

Early Life History of Marine Fishes

Bruce S. Miller
Arthur W. Kendall
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 376
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  • Book Info
    Early Life History of Marine Fishes
    Book Description:

    The life cycles of fishes are complex and varied, and knowledge of the early life stages is important for understanding the biology, ecology, and evolution of fishes. InEarly Life History of Marine Fishes,Bruce S. Miller and Arthur W. Kendall Jr., bring together in a single reference much of the research available and its application to fishery science-knowledge increasingly important because for most fishes, adult populations are determined at the earliest stages of life. Clear and well written, this book offers expert guidance on how to collect and analyze larval fish data and on how this information is interpreted by applied fish biologists and fisheries managers.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-94376-6
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-x)
    (pp. xi-xii)
    (pp. 1-8)

    The life history of fishes can be broken down into five developmental stages. The egg or embryonic stage begins at fertilization and ends at hatching. During the egg stage development from a single cell to a complex organism occurs. Although the pattern of development is similar in all fishes, the site of development varies considerably. The egg stage is spent within the female in live-bearing fishes, and externally in oviparous fishes. In oviparous fishes development may take place in nests, or attached to some substrate, or the eggs may be broadcast spawned and develop as part of the plankton.


  7. CHAPTER 1 Fish Reproduction
    (pp. 9-38)

    Each fish species has evolved in response to a unique set of selective pressures, hence species often differ in their life-history strategies; each life-history strategy is a set of developmental adaptations that allows a species to achieve evolutionary success. Each life-history stage (i.e., egg, larval, juvenile, adult) has a number of possible alternative states, but the life history of a given species consists of only one of these states for each life-history period.

    Since each fish species evolves under a unique set of ecological conditions, it has a unique reproductive strategy with special adaptations including anatomical adaptations, developmental adaptations, behavioral...

  8. CHAPTER 2 Development of Eggs and Larvae
    (pp. 39-54)

    Chapter 1 discussed reproduction in fishes, and the development of gametes within the adults. Chapter 2 summarizes information on the development of the eggs and larvae, and introduces juvenile development. Chapter 3 examines the diversity of eggs and larvae, where we find that certainly the eggs, and in most cases the larvae, are quite different in appearance from the adults, but nevertheless they have distinctive characters that allow their identification. These egg and larval characters also include systematic information that has been used to imply relationships among fishes, complementing information provided by the adults and from genetic studies.

    In this...

  9. CHAPTER 3 Fish Egg and Larval and Identification and Systematics
    (pp. 55-124)

    Most ichthyoplankton studies require accurate identifications of eggs and larvae. Generally several kinds of fish eggs and larvae co-occur in plankton samples, so at least the species of interest needs to be separated from the others. It is usually a good practice to attempt to identify all eggs and larvae in the samples. This ensures that the species of interest will be recognized and separated. Also, in some cases other species are found to be important in understanding the species of primary interest; if they are already identified, it makes analysis more efficient.

    It is no easy task to identify...

  10. CHAPTER 4 Ecology of Fish Eggs and Larvae
    (pp. 125-146)

    The relationships of plants and animals to their environment are complex. Organisms interact with many facets of their physical environment as well as with other plants and animals. Ecology is the study of these relationships and interactions. An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals that depend on each other and the environment of the area for their existence. Some ecosystems are small and clearly bounded (e.g., caves, hot springs) but some are large and have inexact (leaky) boundaries (e.g., the Bering Sea). Most species spend their entire lives within the same ecosystem, but may interact differently with other...

  11. CHAPTER 5 Sampling Fish Eggs and Larvae
    (pp. 147-180)

    Most marine fish eggs and larvae are planktonic, that is they drift with the currents in the ocean with little or no control of their horizontal distribution. Together, these fish eggs and larvae are referred to as ichthyoplankton. They can be sampled with gear that has been designed primarily for collecting larger invertebrate zooplankton. This gear is usually a frame covered with mesh to filter the plankton from the water. Since fish eggs and larvae are usually much less abundant than invertebrate zooplankton, relatively large volumes of water need to be filtered to provide adequate samples of ichthyoplankton. Eggs of...

  12. CHAPTER 6 Population Dynamics and Recruitment
    (pp. 181-228)

    In order to manage harvested fish populations, the sources and magnitude of changes in population size must be known. How much of the variation in population size is due to natural causes and how much is due to fishing? How much of the population can be harvested without affecting its ability to reproduce itself? When considering the impact of pollution or other anthropogenic habitat changes, it is essential to know how fish populations are affected; are changes due to these factors, or can such changes be expected without these environmental changes? Population dynamics is the study of fluctuations in abundance...

  13. CHAPTER 7 Habitat, Water Quality and Conservation Biology
    (pp. 229-244)

    Fishes occur in almost all natural waters on Earth: from caves and hot springs, to the deepest parts of the ocean, and under the sea ice of the Antarctic Ocean. Fish eggs and larvae also occur in an incredible array of habitats. The habitat of the early stages is not necessarily the same as that of the adult. A number of spawning migrations take place so that eggs may be laid in areas far from those inhabited by the adults. For example, most salmon (Oncorhynchusspp.) spend their adult life in the open ocean, but migrate to the upper reaches...

  14. CHAPTER 8 Rearing and Culture of Marine Fishes
    (pp. 245-258)

    The Late 1800s and Early 1900s.In the 1860s, G. O. Sars artificially fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and followed their development through hatching, leading to culturing and releasing large numbers of yolk sac larvae into the sea off Norway, which he felt might ameliorate the occurrence of unfavorable year-classes (see Kendall and Duker 1998). Johan Hjort fought hard, but largely in vain, to have sampling conducted to

    determine the value of these releases. In the United States, propagating fishes soon became the major activity of the U.S. Fish and Fisheries Commission after it was established in 1870,...

    (pp. 259-292)
    (pp. 293-302)
    (pp. 303-340)
    (pp. 341-348)
    (pp. 349-364)