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Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine Fishes

Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine Fishes: Patterns and Processes

Edited by Kathleen S. Cole
Copyright Date: 2010
Edition: 1
Pages: 432
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  • Book Info
    Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine Fishes
    Book Description:

    Marine fishes represent astonishing diversity with respect to practically every aspect of their biology. Reproductive modes and sexual patterns are especially fascinating and provide deep insight into general evolutionary problems. In this volume, chapters focus on reproduction and sexuality among groups of fishes defined by habitat, taxon, and the reproductive processes that are critical for reproductive success. The book illustrates how knowledge of reproductive biology among marine fishes can help identify vulnerable and potentially vulnerable species in the face of changing environmental conditions and increasing human-based pressures.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-94797-9
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    (pp. xv-xxii)
    Kathleen S. Cole

    The study of evolutionary biology is like a detective story, complete with the classic three word mantra of “what, how, and why?” Shared biological patterns of new characters or modifications of existing characters suggest the possibility, if not probability, of a shared evolutionary history. Consequently, the “what” referred to above is an initial observation of an apparent shared character trait that leads to a hypothesis of homology-based evolutionary relatedness. The question of “how” leads naturally into investigations of formative biological processes underlying observed patterns. This frequently involves the study of molecules, patterns of gene expression and regulation, endocrine production and...


    • 1 Chondrichthyan Reproduction
      (pp. 3-20)
      John A. Musick

      The chondrichthyan fishes have evolved separately from the Osteichthyes (Euteleostomi) since the dawn of gnathostomy more than 450 million years ago (Miller 2003; Kikugawa et al. 2004). Indeed, the chondrichthyans may be the oldest gnathostome group, perhaps having evolved from some thelodont agnathan ancestor in the Silurian (Marss et al. 2002). Whatever their origins, the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes underwent rapid divergent radiations during the Devonian (Miles 1967). This early divergence resulted in quite different reproductive trajectories in the two clades, probably initiated by high egg and larval predation from the newly evolved gnathostomes themselves (Musick & Ellis 2005). Osteichthyan reproductive evolution...

    • 2 Reproduction and Development in Epipelagic Fishes
      (pp. 21-64)
      Bruce B. Collette

      The marine pelagic environment is the largest realm on Planet Ocean, constituting 99% of the biosphere volume and supplying about 80% of the fish consumed by humans (Angel 1993; Game et al. 2009). The epipelagic or holoepipelagic region of Parin (1970) is a thin upper fraction of the pelagic realm. Epipelagic fishes spend all or almost all of their lives in the open ocean, mostly above the thermocline, usually in the upper 20 to 30 meters, although many species move deeper to feed. This treatment of the reproductive biology and development of epipelagic fishes excludes sharks and deeper-dwelling mesopelagic fishes....

    • 3 Reproduction in Scorpaeniformes
      (pp. 65-90)
      Marta Muñoz

      The Scorpaeniformes, or mail-cheeked fishes, are one of the largest and most morphologically diverse teleostean orders with more than 1400 species classified in 24 to 36 families, depending on the taxonomy (e.g., Washington et al. 1984b; Eschmeyer 1998; Nelson 2006). After Cuvier’s (1829) initial characterization, phylogenetic relationships of this group have been considered by many authors (e.g., Matsubara 1943, 1955; Yabe 1985; Gill 1988; Shinohara 1994; Imamura 1996). Although it has been traditionally retained as a taxonomic unit, recent studies indicate that the mail-cheeked fish group is polyphyletic (see Shinohara & Imamura 2007 for a review comparing findings of Imamura & Yabe...

    • 4 Parental Care, Oviposition Sites, and Mating Systems of Blennioid Fishes
      (pp. 91-116)
      Philip A. Hastings and Christopher W. Petersen

      Mating systems of species result from a complex interaction of phylogenetic constraints and a host of environmental factors (Emlen & Oring 1977; Shuster & Wade 2003). Well-documented, fundamental features of the reproductive biology of fishes affecting their mating systems include mode of fertilization, egg type, and parental care pattern (Gross & Shine 1981). These features evolve relatively slowly in most fishes as they vary little within lineages (Mank et al. 2005). Environmental factors in general are more variable within lineages and consequently are more often responsible for variation in the mating systems within particular lineages. These include the ability of males to sequester...

    • 5 Gonad Morphology in Hermaphroditic Gobies
      (pp. 117-162)
      Kathleen S. Cole

      Gobiid fishes (Family Gobiidae, Order Perciformes), consisting of at least 214 genera and 1,400 species (E. Murdy pers. comm.), constitute the second largest vertebrate family (second only to the Cyprinidae) and the largest family of vertebrates occupying marine environments (Nelson 2006). Among species for which there is information on reproductive biology, all are oviparous, having external fertilization in which gametes are released and fertilization occurs in the external environment. Typically, the female oviposits demersal eggs on a spawning surface prepared by the male, and the male guards the embryos until they hatch.

      The reproductive anatomy of gobiids, particularly among males,...


    • 6 Gonad Development in Hermaphroditic Gobies
      (pp. 165-202)
      Kathleen S. Cole

      Among hermaphroditic goby taxa (Perciformes, Gobiidae), considerable variability in the composition and configuration of gametogenic tissue within the gonad proper is coupled with a diversity of accessory structures of the reproductive complex (Cole 1990, 2009, this volume). Such diversity prompts the question as to how gonad ontogeny and morphogenesis may have become modified to produce such an impressive array of anatomical complexity. In the past decade, major advances in gene expression research have substantially improved our understanding of how cells and tissues first differentiate and then become organized to form the teleost reproductive complex. Genes and gene products such as...

    • 7 Fertilization in Marine Fishes A Review of the Data and Its Application to Conservation Biology
      (pp. 203-240)
      Christopher W. Petersen and Carlotta Mazzoldi

      Fertilization in fishes appears to be a relatively simple phenomenon to discuss. Individuals live in an aquatic medium, so sperm and eggs can be broadcast into the environment with spawning partners releasing gametes synchronously in close proximity. This suggests that fertilization success (the proportion of eggs fertilized) will be high in marine fishes, that ejaculates do not need special modifications, and that male ejaculates with sperm and seminal fluid similar to blood plasma would be adequate to allow for successful fertilization. In the early seminal papers on social and mating system evolution, sperm production costs were seen as trivial, and...

    • 8 Bidirectional Sex Change in Marine Fishes
      (pp. 241-272)
      Philip L. Munday, Tetsuo Kuwamura and Frederieke J. Kroon

      Sex change (sequential hermaphroditism) is well known in fishes, where its occurrence and evolutionary advantage have been the focus of numerous reviews since the early 1960s (e.g., Atz 1964; Ghiselin 1969; Warner 1978, 1988; Kuwamura & Nakashima 1998; Munday et al. 2006a; Sadovy de Mitcheson & Liu 2008). Typically, individuals of sex-changing species either first function as female and then change sex to male (protogynous sex change) or they first function as male and then change to female (protandrous sex change). Bidirectional sex change—where both males and females change sex in the same population—was not thought to occur, either because...

    • 9 Neuroendocrine Regulation of Sex Change and Alternate Sexual Phenotypes in Sex-Changing Reef Fishes
      (pp. 273-306)
      John Godwin

      Our understanding of the diversity of sexual strategies occurring in nature has increased dramatically in the last 25 years. This is particularly true in the area of determination of an individual’s sex by environmental signals. Progress in understanding environmental sex determination (ESD) has been greatest in the areas of temperature dependent sex determination in reptiles (Crews 2003) and social determination of sex and sexual expression in fishes, the primary topic of this chapter. Related to the question of how the same genotype may direct the development of different sexes in response to environmental signals is that of what physiological mechanisms...

    • 10 Acoustical Behavior of Coral Reef Fishes
      (pp. 307-386)
      Phillip S. Lobel, Ingrid M. Kaatz and Aaron N. Rice

      The soundscapes of the ocean have been underappreciated for far too long. The notion that the sea was a silent world was conveyed early in the history of scuba diving (Cousteau & Dumas 1953), and the idea has persisted. This perspective was reinforced by the fact that human hearing is poor underwater and that the sounds of many fishes are not easily heard. Scuba divers are especially at a disadvantage for hearing underwater because of the near constant stream of noisy bubbles running over their ears. Exhaled bubbles and boat noise can often mask our being able to hear sound-producing fishes...

    (pp. 387-388)

    At its inception, this volume was envisaged as an opportunity to shine a spotlight on a number of topics associated with reproductive biology among marine fishes. Many of the topics have either received scant coverage in the past or were ready for a comprehensive and updated treatment. Accordingly, contributions to the volume were chosen to fill in previous gaps in our knowledge, to present new approaches to existing problems, and to generate new testable models for questions related to the evolution of reproductive and sexual biology in marine fishes.

    As a topic, the biology of vertebrate reproduction encompasses a wide...

  8. INDEX
    (pp. 389-409)
  9. Back Matter
    (pp. 410-410)