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The Third Reich Sourcebook

The Third Reich Sourcebook

Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: 1
Pages: 991
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  • Book Info
    The Third Reich Sourcebook
    Book Description:

    No documentation of National Socialism can be undertaken without the explicit recognition that the "German Renaissance" promised by the Nazis culminated in unprecedented horror-World War II and the genocide of European Jewry. With The Third Reich Sourcebook, editors Anson Rabinbach and Sander L. Gilman present a comprehensive collection of newly translated documents drawn from wide-ranging primary sources, documenting both the official and unofficial cultures of National Socialist Germany from its inception to its defeat and collapse in 1945. Framed with introductions and annotations by the editors, the documents presented here include official government and party pronouncements, texts produced within Nazi structures, such as the official Jewish Cultural League, as well as documents detailing the impact of the horrors of National Socialism on those who fell prey to the regime, especially Jews and the handicapped. With thirty chapters on ideology, politics, law, society, cultural policy, the fine arts, high and popular culture, science and medicine, sexuality, education, and other topics, The Third Reich Sourcebook is the ultimate collection of primary sources on Nazi Germany.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95514-1
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xx)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xxiii-xxvi)
  5. List of Key Abbreviations
    (pp. xxvii-xxviii)

    • 1. The Munich Years and the Legacy of the War

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 3-4)

        NO EVENT IS MORE CRUCIAL to understanding the emergence of Nazism than Germany’s surrender to the Allies at 11 o’clock on 11 November 1918. Until the very end of World War I, wartime propaganda portrayed the undefeated Imperial German Army as invincible, giving no hint of the coming disaster on the Western Front. The anti-Hitler journalist Sebastian Haffner recalled that when he was eleven years old and saw the newspaper headline “Armistice Signed,” his “entire inner world . . . collapsed.”¹ Adolf Hitler, recuperating from partial blindness in a military hospital in Pasewalk, also recalled the trauma of defeat, later...

      • 1. Guidelines of the German Workers’ Party (1919)
        (pp. 5-6)
      • 2. Letter to Adolf Gemlich (1919)
        (pp. 6-7)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 3. The Founding of the Party in 1920 (1933)
        (pp. 8-9)
        Wilfrid Bade
      • 4. Jewishness in and around Us (1919)
        (pp. 10-12)
        Dietrich Eckart
      • 5. The Program of the German Workers’ Party: The Twenty-Five Points (1920)
        (pp. 12-14)
      • 6. Manifesto for Breaking the Bondage of Interest (1919)
        (pp. 14-16)
        Gottfried Feder
      • 7. Prohn Fights for His People (1933)
        (pp. 17-19)
        Otto Gmelin
      • 8. The German Soldier (1939)
        (pp. 19-20)
        Heinrich Lersch
      • 9. Schlageter (1933)
        (pp. 20-21)
        Hanns Johst
      • 10. One of a Hundred Thousand (1937)
        (pp. 22-27)
        Hans Hinkel
      • 11. The Hitler Trial (1933)
        (pp. 27-30)
        Wilfrid Bade
      • 12. The SA Conquers Berlin: A Documentary Report (1933)
        (pp. 30-31)
        Wilfrid Bade
      • 13. Our Speakers in the Anti-Marxist Struggle: The Balance of an Election Year (1932)
        (pp. 31-35)
        Fritz Oerter
      • 14. How I Became a National Socialist (1934)
        (pp. 35-36)
        Hermann Führbach
    • 2. Nazism in Power:: 1933

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 37-39)

        THOUGH HITLER’S FOLLOWERS CLAIMED that his appointment as chancellor on 30 January 1933 was “a national revolution,” his opponents, like the exiled writer Heinrich Mann (1871–1950), countered that “it was the violent suppression of a people that no longer dared to resist.”¹ Hermann Rauschning (1887–1982), former mayor of Danzig and one of the most influential defectors from Nazism in the 1930s, called it a “revolution of nihilism.”² Historians have been reluctant to apply the term revolution to the National Socialist regime since no social revolution occurred and because they view the National Socialists as “counterrevolutionaries” who were opposed...

      • 15. On the History of National Socialism (1939)
        (pp. 40-42)
        Walter Frank
      • 16. The White World Revolution (1933)
        (pp. 42-44)
        Oswald Spengler
      • 17. Radio Address: 30 January 1933
        (pp. 45-45)
        Hermann Göring
      • 18. Day of Potsdam: 22 March 1933
        (pp. 45-46)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 19. My Day of Potsdam: Diary Entry (1933)
        (pp. 46-47)
        Erich Ebermayer
      • 20. Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of Volk and State (1933)
        (pp. 47-48)
      • 21. The Reichstag Fire: Declaration of Martial Law? (1933)
        (pp. 49-50)
      • 22. Speech against the Passage of the Enabling Act (1933)
        (pp. 50-52)
        Otto Wels
      • 23. Law to Remedy the State of Emergency of Volk and Reich (1933)
        (pp. 52-53)
      • 24. Law for the Restoration of Professional Civil Service (1933)
        (pp. 53-53)
      • 25. Speech to Commemorate National Labor Day (1933)
        (pp. 54-55)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 26. Second-Class Comrades? (1936)
        (pp. 55-57)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 27. State, Movement, Volk: The Tripartite Division of Political Unity (1933)
        (pp. 58-59)
        Carl Schmitt
      • 28. The Total State (1933)
        (pp. 59-62)
        Ernst Forsthoff
      • 29. The Total State? (1934)
        (pp. 62-63)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 30. The Führer Protects the Law: On Adolf Hitler’s Reichstag Address of 13 July 1934
        (pp. 63-67)
        Carl Schmitt
      • 31. On the Position of the Judge before National Socialist Law and in the National Socialist State (1936)
        (pp. 67-67)
        Hans Frank
    • 3. The Political Religion:: Führer Cult, Ceremonies, and Symbol

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 68-70)

        FASHIONING HITLER’S PUBLIC IMAGE was a preoccupation of the Nazi Party from the early 1920s. He was one of the first politicians to make public use of the airplane, and he always traveled with his personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann, who documented him in a variety of flattering poses. Hoffmann shaped his subject’s image to fit the circumstances: in the 1920s, Hitler was the fervent, brown-shirted party leader with a resolute gaze; to appeal to voters in the 1930s, he was a man of the people; after 1933, he was most often the statesman; and during the war, he was the...

      • 32. Adolf Hitler’s Homeland (1933)
        (pp. 71-72)
        Albert Reich
      • 33. Hitler as No One Knows Him (1933)
        (pp. 72-74)
        Baldur von Schirach
      • 34. The Oath to Adolf Hitler (1934)
        (pp. 74-76)
        Rudolf Hess
      • 35. To the Führer; Hitler (1935)
        (pp. 77-77)
        Baldur Von Schirach
      • 36. I Talked to Hitler (1936)
        (pp. 77-78)
        David Lloyd George
      • 37. “This Is National Kitsch!”: What the Ban on Führer Kitsch Is Supposed to Protect Us From (1933)
        (pp. 79-80)
      • 38. City and Countryside Shine in Celebratory Splendor (1939)
        (pp. 80-81)
      • 39. The Swastika (1933)
        (pp. 81-82)
        Engelbert Huber
      • 40. The Propaganda of the Street and the Masses (1936)
        (pp. 82-85)
        Franz Alfred Six
      • 41. The Power of the Spoken Word (1936)
        (pp. 86-87)
        Franz Alfred Six
      • 42. Good and Bad Posters (1939)
        (pp. 88-90)
        Erwin Schockel
      • 43. With German Protestant Catholic Greetings (1935)
        (pp. 90-90)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 44. The Party Rally Day of Victory: The Victory of Faith (1933)
        (pp. 91-93)
        Wilfrid Bade
      • 45. Five Years: Nuremberg, City of Party Rallies (1938)
        (pp. 93-95)
        Willy Liebel
      • 46. Listening to Göring’s Speech at the 1938 Nuremberg Rally (1938)
        (pp. 95-96)
        Victor Klemperer
      • 47. Law Concerning Holidays (1934)
        (pp. 96-97)
      • 48. New Meanings for “Inherited” Customs? (1937)
        (pp. 97-99)
        Hannes Kremer
      • 49. Call to the Fire (1934)
        (pp. 100-101)
        Frank Leberecht
      • 50. Honoring Fallen Heroes: NSDAP Veterans’ Memorial Day Celebrations (1939)
        (pp. 101-104)
        Central Cultural Office, Reich Propaganda Leadership

    • 4. Between Myth and Doctrine

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 107-109)

        NAZI IDEOLOGY HAD ITS ROOTS in a broad array of völkisch, anti-Semitic, and pseudoscientific ideas put forward during the nineteenth century, including social Darwinism, eugenics, pan-Germanism, Aryan mysticism, and extreme nationalism. But it never developed a consistent or officially prescribed doctrine. Unlike Soviet Marxism, which relied on anonical Marxist-Leninist texts, or liberal democracy, which was based on the rule of law, the Nazi Party was more intent on publicly affirming National Socialism’s “worldview” than on putting forth a coherent statement of it. Despite Hitler’s frequent claim that “National Socialism is a worldview,” even the leading ideologues of the movement—like...

      • 51. The Aryan (1925)
        (pp. 110-113)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 52. Speech at the NSDAP Congress on Culture (1933)
        (pp. 113-120)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 53. The Racial-Völkisch-Political Conception of History (1934)
        (pp. 120-124)
        Ernst Krieck
      • 54. The Myth of the Twentieth Century: On the Third Edition (1930)
        (pp. 124-126)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 55. Communism with the Mask Off (1935)
        (pp. 126-134)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 56. National Socialist Legal Thought (1934)
        (pp. 134-137)
        Carl Schmitt
      • 57. A Modest Racial Study of the German People (1929)
        (pp. 137-139)
        Hans F. K. Günther
      • 58. The Word Nordic (1939)
        (pp. 140-140)
        Susanna Pertz
      • 59. Nordic Beauty: Portraits of Perfection in Life and in Art (1937)
        (pp. 140-142)
        Paul Schultze-Naumburg
      • 60. The German Face (1935)
        (pp. 142-144)
        Wolf Willrich
      • 61. Secret Cultic Societies of the Germanic Peoples (1934)
        (pp. 144-146)
        Otto Höfler
      • 62. Were the Ancient Germans “Ecstatics”?: A Comment on Otto Höfler’s Secret Cultic Societies of the Germanic Peoples (1936)
        (pp. 146-147)
        Harald Spehr
      • 63. Nordic Ecstasy (1933)
        (pp. 148-149)
        Eberhard Freidank
      • 64. Hellas and Germania (1943)
        (pp. 149-150)
        Alfred Baeumler
    • 5. Racial Science

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 151-152)

        “RACE” HAD MULTIPLE MEANINGS in European science of the nineteenth century. On the one hand, it simply meant “all human beings,” but it also reflected an older, seventeenth-century notion of deep, unbridgeable divisions among human beings, marked by external (as well as unseen) qualities: skin color, facial structure, character, and intelligence. Charles Darwin’s (1809–82) mid-nineteenth-century claim to present the theoretical underpinnings of all biological development immediately had both scientific and popular resonance in Wilhelmine Germany. Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) was Darwin’s major proponent in German science. He argued that “higher” species embodied each stage of their earlier, more primitive...

      • 65. We Need a Reich Office of Racial Affairs (1933)
        (pp. 153-157)
        Ludolf Haase
      • 66. National Socialist Racial Policy: A Speech to German Women (1934)
        (pp. 157-163)
        Walter Gross
      • 67. Biological Studies and Völkisch Education (1933)
        (pp. 163-167)
        Paul Brohmer
      • 68. Biology and National Socialism (1937/1938)
        (pp. 167-168)
        Günther Hecht
      • 69. Colored Blood in the Rhineland (1935)
        (pp. 168-169)
        Johann Fahlbusch
      • 70. Racial Policy (1942)
        (pp. 169-171)
        Reichsführer SS Central Office for Racial Policy
    • 6. Germany’s Colonial Mission

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 172-173)

        IN 1919, THE SHORT-LIVED GERMAN colonial empire, begun in 1883, was dissolved by the Treaty of Versailles. German colonies in Africa, the South Seas, and Asia were given over to the victorious powers, from Japan to Great Britain. All settlers were ordered removed (except for those in German Southwest Africa). Even though Prussia had established colonies in Africa (Great Friedrichsburg, now in Ghana) as early as 1682, the Reich chancellor, Otto von Bismarck (1815–98), had always opposed “foreign” colonies and had left the “scramble for Africa” (and everywhere else) to the French and British colonial empires. In 1883, the...

      • 71. National Socialist Thought in the World (1933)
        (pp. 174-175)
        Karl Haushofer
      • 72. German Territory and German Volk (1934)
        (pp. 175-177)
        Hans Simmer
      • 73. My Father, My Colonies (1934)
        (pp. 177-178)
        Hans Grimm
      • 74. Colonial Policy as Cultural Mission (1938)
        (pp. 178-180)
        Ernst Gerhard Jacob
      • 75. The Biological-Historical Background of German Living Space (1943)
        (pp. 180-182)
        Ernst Janisch

    • 7. Jews:: The Visible Enemy

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 185-186)

        EUROPEAN ANTI-SEMITISM IS AS OLD as the early Christian church and as new as the racial science that emerged in early twentieth-century Vienna. If ancient writers also left occasional evidence of their dislike of Jews, theirs was a resentment that was never central to their self-definition as Romans or Greeks. With the rise of Christianity, however, came a new phenomenon: a teaching of contempt that made anti-Judaism part of Christian theology, as in Paul’s assertion in his letter to the Romans that Israel has to become Christian before the kingdom of God can arrive (Romans 11:25).

        With the spread of...

      • 76. Aryan and Jew (1925)
        (pp. 187-191)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 77. The Anti-Semitism of the NSDAP (1933)
        (pp. 192-194)
        Engelbert Huber
      • 78. Why the Aryan Law? A Contribution to the Jewish Question (1934)
        (pp. 195-197)
        E. H. Schulz and R. Frercks
      • 79. The Visible Enemy: The Jews (1935)
        (pp. 197-199)
        Reinhard Heydrich
      • 80. Bolshevism: The Work of an Alien Race (1935)
        (pp. 199-200)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 81. An Open Letter to Gerhard Kittel (1933)
        (pp. 200-202)
        Martin Buber
      • 82. Response to Martin Buber (1934)
        (pp. 202-203)
        Gerhard Kittel
    • 8. Eliminating the Jews:: From the Nuremberg Laws to Kristallnacht

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 204-208)

        THE EFFECT OF NAZI ATTITUDES toward the half million Jews in Germany was felt almost immediately after the National Socialists came to power. Many supporters (and detractors) had assumed that anti-Semitic vitriol was simply rhetoric that the party would abandon once in power. The official organization of Jews in Germany, the Central Verein, issued a statement calling for calm and declaring, “We do not believe our German fellow citizens will let themselves be carried away into committing excesses against the Jews.”¹ In March 1933, on the pretext that Jewish organizations abroad were boycotting German goods, the party organized an “anti-Jewish...

      • 83. Reich Citizenship Law (1935)
        (pp. 209-209)
      • 84. Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (1935)
        (pp. 209-210)
      • 85. Civil Rights and the Natural Inequality of Man (1936)
        (pp. 210-216)
        Wilhelm Stuckart and Hans Globke
      • 86. German Jurisprudence and the Struggle against the Jewish Spirit (1936)
        (pp. 216-218)
        Carl Schmitt
      • 87. Accident of History or Destiny of the Race? (1939)
        (pp. 218-220)
        Herwig Hartner-Hnizdo
      • 88. The Criminality of Jewry (1940)
        (pp. 221-222)
      • 89. Concentration Camps and Their Inmates (1936)
        (pp. 222-223)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 90. Jewry in the Eastern European Space (1938)
        (pp. 223-226)
        Peter-heinz Seraphim
      • 91. The Yiddish Language as Expression of the Jewish Mind (1942)
        (pp. 226-228)
        Karl Friedrich Euler
      • 92. Second Decree Concerning Implementation of the Law on Changes to Family Names and First Names (1938)
        (pp. 228-228)
      • 93. The Final Struggle against Jewry: A Historical Reflection on Jewish Enmity (1938)
        (pp. 228-230)
        Fritz Arlt
      • 94. Instructions for Kristallnacht (1938)
        (pp. 231-232)
        Reinhard Heydrich
      • 95. Actions against the Jews on 9, 10, and 11 November 1938
        (pp. 232-233)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 96. Report on Kristallnacht (1939)
        (pp. 233-235)
        Betty Scholem
      • 97. Reactions of the Populace to Reichskristallnacht (1938)
        (pp. 235-236)
      • 98. What Now, Jews? (1938)
        (pp. 236-238)
        Das Schwarze Korps

    • 9. Educating the Race:: Children and Adolescents

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 241-242)

        IF THERE WAS A LEGACY of the Protestant Reformation that became a hallmark of things “German,” it was the emphasis on education as a means of self-improvement. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Germans had invented everything from early childhood education (Friedrich Fröbel, 1782–1852, the creator of the kindergarten) to the modern university (Wilhelm von Humboldt, 1767–1835). Education was the path to Bildung, that impossible word that signified culture, knowledge, sophistication, and social status. Beginning with Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), the eighteenth century saw a turn to an authoritarian notion of education as indoctrination in...

      • 99. Adolf Hitler Is Our Führer!
        (pp. 243-243)
        Unknown Child
      • 100. Conference Minutes: Horst Wessel School in Kassel (1933–45)
        (pp. 243-247)
      • 101. German Grammar: Active/Passive Voice (1937)
        (pp. 247-247)
        Paul Garz and Otto Hartmann
      • 102. Heritage and Mission: A German Primer for Young Readers (1941)
        (pp. 248-248)
        Paul Habermann, Arthur Laudien and Rudolf Tobler
      • 103. To the Flag (1942)
        (pp. 248-248)
        Baldur von Schirach
      • 104. Volk and Führer: German History for Schools (1942)
        (pp. 249-250)
        Dietrich Klagges
      • 105. Math Lessons (1942)
        (pp. 250-250)
        Gerhard Kölling and Eugen Löffler
      • 106. School Subject: Biology (1942)
        (pp. 250-251)
        Otto Steche, Erich Stengel and Maxim Wagner
      • 107. Law Concerning the Hitler Youth (1936)
        (pp. 251-252)
      • 108. Reports on German Youth (1938)
        (pp. 252-252)
      • 109. Song of the Hitler Youth: Devotion to the Fatherland (1939)
        (pp. 253-253)
      • 110. The National Socialist Youth Movement (1933)
        (pp. 253-254)
        Baldur von Schirach
      • 111. Leadership Training Program of the Hitler Youth (1938)
        (pp. 255-256)
        Reimund Schnabel
      • 112. A Hitler Youth Scout Is Loyal and True! (1941)
        (pp. 256-259)
      • 113. The League of German Girls Organization in the Hitler Youth (1935)
        (pp. 259-261)
        Oberbannführer Stephan
      • 114. The Position of the Ancient Germanic Woman (1934)
        (pp. 261-262)
        Erna Bohlmann
      • 115. Faith and Beauty (1938)
        (pp. 262-263)
        Günter Kaufmann
      • 116. Collecting Women’s Hair: Reich Directive 36/K (1940)
        (pp. 264-264)
      • 117. The “Eastern Deployment” of the BDM (1942)
        (pp. 264-265)
        Jutta Rüdiger
      • 118. Wartime Fashion Show (1942)
        (pp. 265-265)
        Kristel Paun
    • 10. Higher Education:: Science, History, and Philosophy Revised

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 266-269)

        IN 1933, JEWISH SCHOLARS and political opponents of the Nazis suffered an unprecedented loss of positions and livelihood at Germany’s universities. Of the 1,700 faculty members and 313 full professors who lost their jobs, 80 percent were removed on “racial” grounds. The rest were pacifists or had left-wing sympathies. The remaining members of the academic elite by and large uttered no word of protest when their Jewish and liberal colleagues were dismissed or when Jewish students were barred from admission to their universities.

        The new regime had no coherent academic policy apart from a few slogans and did not appoint...

      • 119. Renewal of the German University (1933)
        (pp. 270-271)
        Ernst Krieck
      • 120. Vow of Allegiance of the Professors of German Universities and Institutions of Higher Learning to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist State (1933)
        (pp. 271-278)
        Arthur Göpfert, Eugen Fischer, Martin Heidegger and Wilhelm Pinder
      • 121. The State of the University (1938)
        (pp. 278-280)
        Karl Alexander von Müller
      • 122. The Intellectuals and National Socialism (1934)
        (pp. 280-282)
        E. Günther Gründel
      • 123. Jews in Physics: Jewish Physics (1939)
        (pp. 282-283)
        Ludwig Glaser
      • 124. Citing Jewish Authors in Dissertations (1940)
        (pp. 283-284)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 125. Disease unto Death? Disease unto Life? (1938)
        (pp. 284-285)
        Christoph Steding
      • 126. The Epochs of German History (1936)
        (pp. 285-287)
        Johannes Haller
      • 127. The Influence of the Peasantry in the National Community of the Volk (1938)
        (pp. 288-289)
        Karl Alexander von Müller
      • 128. East Prussia in the History of the Reich (1938)
        (pp. 289-290)
        Theodor Schieder
      • 129. Volk in the Field (1943)
        (pp. 291-292)
        Kleo Pleyer
      • 130. The German of the German Language Society (1934)
        (pp. 292-293)
        Ernst Krieck
      • 131. Philosophy (1939)
        (pp. 293-295)
        Ernst Krieck
      • 132. The State and Philosophy (1935)
        (pp. 295-296)
        Arnold Gehlen
      • 133. The German of the Enlightenment (1935)
        (pp. 296-298)
        Gerhard Fricke
      • 134. Nietzsche and National Socialism (1943)
        (pp. 298-300)
        Alfred Baeumler
      • 135. Nietzsche’s Zarathustra and the Historical Zarathustra (1935)
        (pp. 300-302)
        Wolfgang Schultz
      • 136. Nietzsche and National Socialism (1938)
        (pp. 302-304)
        Heinrich Härtle

    • 11. Women and “the Woman Question”

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 307-308)

        NAZI EDUCATION provided a “special” status to women as the bearers of the next generation of the “race.” Women had gradually been civilly emancipated in the various German-speaking states during the nineteenth century but were permitted to vote in the Weimar Republic as of November 1918. Women entered universities beginning in 1900 and were guaranteed access to the workplace. For Hitler, all of these advances grew out of the corruption of the German spirit by the Jews. He stated in 1934, “The word women’s emancipation is merely an invention of the Jewish intellect, and its meaning is informed by the...

      • 137. The National Socialist Solution to the Woman Question (1933)
        (pp. 309-310)
        Paula Siber
      • 138. Woman’s Freedom and Freedom of the Volk on Foundations of Camaraderie (1933)
        (pp. 311-311)
        Carola Struve
      • 139. Speech to the Meeting of the National Socialist Women’s Organization (1934)
        (pp. 311-314)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 140. Mother (1934)
        (pp. 314-315)
        Hanns Johst
      • 141. The Mother (1934)
        (pp. 315-316)
        Emil Strauß
      • 142. German Women (1933)
        (pp. 316-319)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 143. To Swedes and Germans (1937)
        (pp. 320-321)
        Gertrud Scholtz-Klink
      • 144. Fashion: A Matter for Our Women! (1939)
        (pp. 321-323)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 145. Working Women and Leisure Time
        (pp. 323-325)
        Office of Women’s Affairs of the German Labor Front
      • 146. The Maternal Instinct Must Be Reinforced (1941)
        (pp. 325-325)
        Gertrud Altmann-Gädke
      • 147. Women’s Reactions to Goebbels’s “Total War” Speech (1943)
        (pp. 326-326)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
    • 12. Marriage and the Family

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 327-328)

        DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, there was a systematic attempt to wrest the “sacrament of marriage”—which linked husband, wife, and God—from the prerogatives of the Roman Catholic Church. Marriage was made a contractual and legal relationship under the supervision and acknowledgment of the state. In the German lands occupied by French revolutionary forces, such civil marriages were introduced in 1798. Under Otto von Bismarck, after 6 February 1875, only civil marriages were permitted in Prussia and then in imperial Germany. Bismarck, seeing Protestant Germany in a protracted struggle with the Catholic Church and Catholic states (the Kulturkampf), wanted to...

      • 148. Law for the Protection of the Hereditary Health of the German Volk (1935)
        (pp. 329-330)
      • 149. Guide to Racial Science and Eugenics, Fostering Congenitally Sound Progeny, and Family Science for the Intermediate Level (1937)
        (pp. 331-332)
        Otto Steche
      • 150. Selection and Breeding (1942)
        (pp. 332-334)
      • 151. Womb Wars (1942)
        (pp. 334-334)
        Otto Steche, Erich Stengel and Maxim Wagner
    • 13. Eliminating “Superfluous Life”:: “Asocials,” Criminals, the Handicapped, and the Mentally III

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 335-337)

        THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY was the age of eugenics. “Improve the race!” was the cry in all the nations (from Germany to the United States to Japan) that accepted the primacy of “science” as the means of improving the lives of their citizens. In 1927, in his comments on the compulsory sterilization case of the “feebleminded” Carrie Buck of Virginia, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote,

        We have seen more than once that the public welfare may call upon the best citizens for their lives. It would be strange if it could not call upon those who already...

      • 152. Law for the Protection against Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (1933)
        (pp. 338-339)
      • 153. The National Socialist Fight against Criminality (1936)
        (pp. 339-341)
        Kurt Daluege
      • 154. The Enemy in Disguise (1935)
        (pp. 341-342)
        Reinhard Heydrich
      • 155. “Socially Fit–Asocial–Antisocial” (1937)
        (pp. 343-343)
        Kölnische Zeitung
      • 156. Body Type and Crime (1940)
        (pp. 343-344)
        Ferdinand von Neureiter
      • 157. Memorandum Authorizing Involuntary Euthanasia (1939)
        (pp. 344-344)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 158. Sermon on Euthanasia (1941)
        (pp. 345-347)
        Clemens August Count von Galen
      • 159. On the Public Response to the Film Ich klage an [I Accuse] (1942)
        (pp. 347-349)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 160. Christianity and Sterilization (1942)
        (pp. 350-350)
        Rudolf Frercks
    • 14. Healthy and Unhealthy Sexuality

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 351-354)

        IF RACIAL HYGIENE STOOD at the center of the Nazis’ concern about how to improve the “race,” then human sexuality was the means to that end. Germany was the site for some of the first modern sexual liberation movements. Nudism had its roots in the 1890s in the German youth movement and became institutionalized as Free Body Culture (Freikörperkultur) as early as 1913. Nudism was to be found throughout Germany as a sign of a healthy concern with the body. The body only revealed itself when nude. The writer Franz Kafka (1883–1924), when he went to a nudist camp...

      • 161. Is This “Nudist Culture?” Herr Stapel Is Outraged! (1935)
        (pp. 355-356)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 162. Sexual Indecency on Active Duty (1936)
        (pp. 356-358)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 163. The Suffocating Nobility (1943)
        (pp. 358-360)
        Wolfgang Willrich
      • 164. Race and Love (1941)
        (pp. 361-363)
        Hugo Hertwig
      • 165. The Abortion Trial: Jewish Doctors as Murderers (1939)
        (pp. 364-365)
        Der Stürmer
      • 166. Incest and Hereditary Health (1940)
        (pp. 365-367)
        A. Aschenbrenner
      • 167. How Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institute for Sexual Science Was Demolished and Destroyed (1933)
        (pp. 367-369)
      • 168. Men’s Leagues: A Psychosexual Analysis of the Röhm Catastrophe (1934)
        (pp. 369-371)
        Magnus Hirschfeld
      • 169. Illusions (1935)
        (pp. 371-374)
      • 170. 1935 Revision to Paragraph 175 of the Penal Code (1935)
        (pp. 374-375)
      • 171. On Homosexuality and Abortion (1936, 1937)
        (pp. 375-376)
        Heinrich Himmler
      • 172. Sexually Indecent Abominations against Nature Are Punishable by Death (1935)
        (pp. 377-380)
        Professor Eckhardt
    • 15. The German Soul and Psyche

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 381-383)

        CERTAINLY, ONE OF THE HALLMARKS of the first half of the twentieth century was the invention (or discovery) of interiority.” To know what takes place within the soul, the mind, and heart of another individual or—perhaps more specifically—what takes place deep in the recesses of one’s own psyche has been a desire of human beings since the Greeks. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was one of the undisputed shapers of twentieth-century thought through his discovery of the unconscious. Trained as a neurologist at the University of Vienna, he developed “psychoanalysis,” which offered a threefold approach to understanding the human...

      • 173. Christianity and Psychoanalysis (1933)
        (pp. 384-385)
        Frank Maraun
      • 174. The Role of the Jew in Medicine: The Psychoanalysis of the Jew Sigmund Freud (1933)
        (pp. 385-386)
      • 175. Political Medicine: Foundations of a German Psychotherapy (1933)
        (pp. 386-390)
        Kurt Gauger
      • 176. Interview with Prof. Dr. M. H. Göring: Early Childhood Experiences Determine Development Later in Life (1939)
        (pp. 390-392)
        Herbert Rudolf and M. H. Göring
      • 177. The Case of Edith Jacobsohn: Indictment and Commentaries (1935, 1936)
        (pp. 393-394)
      • 178. Letter to Anna Freud (1935)
        (pp. 394-396)
        Ernest Jones
      • 179. Siegmund [sic] Freud and Psychoanalysis (1939)
        (pp. 396-399)
        Fritz Bleiber
      • 180. The State of Psychotherapy Today (1934)
        (pp. 399-400)
        C. G. Jung
      • 181. Suicide and Deportation (1943)
        (pp. 400-401)
        Ursula von Kardorff
      • 182. On the Psychology of Suicide (1944)
        (pp. 401-403)
        Leonard Reitberger
      • 183. Kamikaze Panic: The Image of Japan in the German Population (1942)
        (pp. 403-406)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS

    • 16. The National Socialist State and Christianity

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 409-412)

        THE HISTORY OF THE RELATIONSHIP between Nazi Germany and the established German churches is complicated by the fact that the regime never clarified its relationship to Christianity. Some historians have argued that National Socialism was an anti-Christian movement that substituted its own “political religion” and pagan worldview for Christian doctrine. The view that the life of the Volk or the community rested on blood, race, and an active and vitalistic harmony with nature was ultimately a religious concept, even if it claimed scientific authority. Others, however, have called Nazism a pro-Christian movement, since most of the leading Nazis considered themselves...

      • 184. Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich (1933)
        (pp. 413-418)
      • 185. Comments on the Meaning of the Concordat (1933)
        (pp. 419-419)
        Völkischer Beobachter
      • 186. What Is the Stance of Christianity to the German Race? (1934)
        (pp. 419-420)
        Michael von Faulhaber
      • 187. Declaration of the German Christians (1933)
        (pp. 420-421)
      • 188. Theological Declaration of Barmen (1934)
        (pp. 421-424)
        Karl Barth
      • 189. Statement of the Confessing Church (1934)
        (pp. 424-425)
      • 190. A Sermon on Bußtag (Day of Atonement): “O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the Lord!” (1938)
        (pp. 425-427)
        Julius von Jan
      • 191. The Churches’ Attempts to Undermine Anti-Jewish Sentiments in the Populace (1941)
        (pp. 427-429)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 192. Theses on the Worldview (1941)
        (pp. 429-433)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 193. Jesus: Aryan or Jew? (1936)
        (pp. 433-435)
        Walter Künneth
      • 194. Jesus of Nazareth and Jewry (1940)
        (pp. 435-436)
        Walter Grundmann
      • 195. The German Faith: Where Do We Stand? (1936)
        (pp. 437-440)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 196. National Socialism and Christianity Are Irreconcilable (1941)
        (pp. 440-441)
        Martin Bormann
      • 197. Resistance and Resignation (1945)
        (pp. 441-442)
        Dietrich Bonhoeffer

    • 17. Literature:: Official Culture and Its Outcasts

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 445-448)

        IF BILDUNG (education, self-cultivation through culture) was one of the defining qualities of German society, then literature was its keystone. Before imperial Germany was created in 1871, the literary text was the strand that knit together Germans as a cultural, if not political, entity. Plays by Gotthold Lessing (1729–81) and Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), novels by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) and Theodor Fontane (1819–98), and poetry by Novalis (1772–1801) and Annette von Droste-Hülshoff (1797–1848) reached into every town and principality and provided a common cultural vocabulary and quasi-national identity. In Wilhelmine Germany, culture was...

      • 198. Down with the Un-German Spirit! (1933)
        (pp. 449-450)
        German Student Association
      • 199. To the German Student Association: All Anti-Semitic Students Are Assholes! (1933)
        (pp. 450-451)
      • 200. General Guidelines for Compiling Blacklists (1933)
        (pp. 451-451)
        Association of German Peoples Librarians
      • 201. To the Individual Student Associations (1933)
        (pp. 452-452)
        German Student Association Head Office for Enlightenment and Publicity
      • 202. The Public Burning of Outlawed Works (1933)
        (pp. 453-454)
        Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
      • 203. Burn Me! (1933)
        (pp. 454-455)
        Oskar Maria Graf
      • 204. The Tasks of the Ministry of Propaganda (1933)
        (pp. 455-457)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 205. Speech at the Opening of the Reich Chamber of Culture (1933)
        (pp. 457-459)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 206. Law Establishing the Reich Chamber of Culture (1933)
        (pp. 459-460)
      • 207. Open Letter to Gottfried Benn (1933)
        (pp. 460-461)
        Klaus Mann
      • 208. Answer to the Literary Emigrants (1933)
        (pp. 462-465)
        Gottfried Benn
      • 209. Open Letter to the Current Occupant of My House in Berlin (Mahler Street 8) (1935)
        (pp. 465-467)
        Lion Feuchtwanger
      • 210. Editors’ Law (1933)
        (pp. 467-469)
      • 211. Against Humanism (1935)
        (pp. 469-470)
        Ernst Bertram
      • 212. Letter to Max von Schillings, President of the Prussian Academy of the Arts (1933)
        (pp. 470-471)
        Ricarda Huch
      • 213. Nation, State, and Literature (1937)
        (pp. 471-472)
        Josef Nadler
      • 214. The New Literary Values (1939)
        (pp. 472-474)
        Heinz Kindermann
      • 215. Foundations and Suppositions of the Scholarly Editing of German-Language Jewish Literature (1937)
        (pp. 474-475)
        Johannes Alt
      • 216. Letter to Eduard Korrodi (1936)
        (pp. 475-478)
        Thomas Mann
      • 217. Diary of a Man in Despair (1937)
        (pp. 478-480)
        Friedrich Percyval Reck-Malleczewen
      • 218. A Matter of Conscience (1935)
        (pp. 480-481)
        Werner Bergengruen
      • 219. Wartime Poems (1942)
        (pp. 481-482)
        Franz Fühmann
    • 18. The Visual Arts:: German Art vs. Degenerate Art

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 483-486)

        ONE OF THE GREAT DEBATES in nineteenth-century aesthetics was whether music or the visual arts were the greatest expression of the human spirit. This ancient struggle between ear and eye, as the thinkers of the nineteenth century framed it, rested on which medium could best present the abstractions of human thought and feeling. The supporters of music, such as the Viennese critic Eduard Hanslick (1825–1904), argued that music could represent the world both abstractly and realistically in the form of “program music.” Art, especially the newest art of photography, seemed limited to mirroring the world. Suddenly, from William Turner...

      • 220. The Continuation of Expressionism (1934)
        (pp. 487-487)
        Otto Andreas Schreiber
      • 221. Revolution in the Visual Arts? (1933)
        (pp. 488-489)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 222. Art and Its Commitment to Truth (1934)
        (pp. 489-492)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 223. Ban on Art Criticism (1936)
        (pp. 492-493)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 224. Letter to Joseph Goebbels (1936)
        (pp. 493-494)
        Ernst Barlach
      • 225. Speech at the Opening of the Great German Art Exhibition (1937)
        (pp. 494-500)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 226. Speech at the Opening of the Degenerate Art Exhibition (1937)
        (pp. 500-503)
        Adolf Ziegler
      • 227. A Visit to the Degenerate Art Exhibition (1937)
        (pp. 503-505)
        Reinhard Piper
      • 228. Vital Questions of Visual Art (1937)
        (pp. 505-506)
        Robert Scholz
      • 229. Contemporary Architecture and Architectural Sculpture (1938)
        (pp. 506-507)
        Werner Rittich
      • 230. The Great German Art Exhibition in Munich, 1940
        (pp. 508-508)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 231. Masterpieces of German Art in Private Jewish Collections (1940)
        (pp. 509-509)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 232. The Mission of the New German Sculpture: On the Arno Breker Exhibit in Paris (1942)
        (pp. 509-511)
        Robert Scholz
      • 233. Tradition and New Design in Architecture (1933)
        (pp. 511-514)
        Paul Schmitthenner
      • 234. Conversation with Alfred Rosenberg, April 1933
        (pp. 514-514)
        Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Rosenberg Alfred
      • 235. The Reich Chancellery (1939)
        (pp. 515-517)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 236. Germanic Tectonics (1937)
        (pp. 517-517)
        Hans Kiener
      • 237. The Meaning of the New Building (1937)
        (pp. 518-520)
        Fritz Todt
      • 238. Redesigning the New Capital of the Reich (1939)
        (pp. 521-522)
        Albert Speer
      • 239. Urban Planning: A Political Task (1939)
        (pp. 522-523)
        German Labor Front
      • 240. Order for the Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (1943)
        (pp. 523-524)
        Heinrich Himmler
    • 19. Music:: The Wagner Cult vs. Degenerate Music

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 525-528)

        “GERMAN MUSIC, especially that of the nineteenth century, celebrated the greatest victories in the whole world; it was this branch of the arts that secured the exemplary international reputation of German art and German artists in a way that no other branch of the arts did.” Apart from the redundant use of the word German, it is hard to dispute these words spoken by the distinguished composer Richard Strauss (1864–1949) at the opening of the Reichsmusikkammer (Reich Music Chamber) in February 1934. However, the same cannot be said for his admiration of Hitler or the new regime’s attitudes toward...

      • 241. Speech at the Opening of the Reich Music Chamber (1933)
        (pp. 529-529)
        Richard Strauss
      • 242. Letter to Adolf Hitler (1935)
        (pp. 530-530)
        Richard Strauss
      • 243. Future Tasks of Musicology (1933)
        (pp. 531-532)
        Fritz Stege
      • 244. The Case of Wilhelm Furtwängler (1933)
        (pp. 532-534)
        Wilhelm Furtwängler and Joseph Goebbels
      • 245. Bayreuth in the Third Reich (1933)
        (pp. 534-536)
        Siegfried Scheffler
      • 246. The Bayreuth Festival: August 15, 1933: “Featuring” Herr Hitler (1933)
        (pp. 536-537)
        Manchester Guardian
      • 247. Diary Entry (1933)
        (pp. 537-537)
        Oskar Loerke
      • 248. A Protest from Richard Wagner’s City of Munich (1933)
        (pp. 538-539)
      • 249. Response to City of Munich Protest (1933)
        (pp. 539-540)
        Thomas Mann
      • 250. On the German Interpretation of Beethoven Since Richard Wagner (1937)
        (pp. 541-542)
        Herbert Birtner
      • 251. Richard Wagner’s Struggle against Foreign Domination of the Soul (1935)
        (pp. 542-543)
        Curt von Westernhagen
      • 252. Letter to the Editor of Common Sense (1940)
        (pp. 543-547)
        Thomas Mann
      • 253. Atonal (1943)
        (pp. 547-547)
        Moser’s Dictionary of Music
      • 254. The Theoreticians of Atonality! (1938)
        (pp. 548-548)
        Degenerate Music Exhibition
      • 255. The Hindemith Affair: Exchange between Wilhelm Furtwängler and Joseph Goebbels (1934)
        (pp. 548-551)
      • 256. Is It Jazz or Just Radio Dance Tunes? (1934)
        (pp. 551-553)
        Wulf Bley
      • 257. Jazz Is Dead: May the Jazz Band Live! (1942)
        (pp. 553-554)
        Ilse Deyk
      • 258. Jazz as a Weapon of Jewry and Americanism (1943)
        (pp. 554-555)
        Carl Hannemann
      • 259. Jazz Music and Youth (1942)
        (pp. 555-555)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
    • 20. Cinema:: Entertainment and Propaganda

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 556-559)

        A GREAT DEAL OF THE POPULAR CULTURE of Nazi Germany lacked the heavy-handed ideology, mythologizing, and pseudoclassical forms of representation embodied in the officially sanctioned architecture, painting, and music. For the vast majority of Germans, the most ubiquitous face of Nazi culture was the less overtly political entertainment offered on radio and above all in film, though these media were hardly devoid of ideological motifs. This distinction was in part an expression of class: art, theater, opera, and classical music appealed to elite tastes; cinema, radio, sports, and travel had a much broader appeal. Film was especially popular, with cinema...

      • 260. Speech at the Kaiserhof (1933)
        (pp. 560-563)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 261. Reich Cinema Law (1934)
        (pp. 563-565)
      • 262. The Cinema as Entertainment Site (1933)
        (pp. 566-567)
        Hans Traub
      • 263. Portrait of the Unmasked Mr. Kohn (1937)
        (pp. 567-570)
        Carl Neumann, Curt Belling and Hans Walther Betz
      • 264. Preparatory Work of the Party until the Takeover of Power (1936)
        (pp. 570-571)
        Curt Belling
      • 265. The Beginning of National Socialist Film (1936)
        (pp. 571-572)
        Curt Belling
      • 266. The Formative Power of Film (1942)
        (pp. 572-575)
        Fritz Hippler
      • 267. We Lucky Kids (1936)
        (pp. 575-576)
      • 268. The Latest Greta Garbo Triumph (1935)
        (pp. 576-577)
      • 269. This, Too, Is Worldview! (1937)
        (pp. 577-578)
      • 270. Film as I See It (1939)
        (pp. 579-579)
        Ewald von Demandowsky
      • 271. What Does the Audience Want to See on the Silver Screen? (1938)
        (pp. 579-581)
        Walter Panofsky
      • 272. Hamburg Cinema: A Typical German Program (1939)
        (pp. 582-584)
        Winifred Holmes
      • 273. Shirley Temple: Enemy of the Reich (1940)
        (pp. 584-584)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 274. Hitler Youth Quex (1933)
        (pp. 584-587)
        Licht Bild Bühne
      • 275. Leni Riefenstahl Spoke (1935)
        (pp. 587-588)
      • 276. Triumph over the Heart—Triumph of the Will (1935)
        (pp. 588-590)
      • 277. Olympia (1938)
        (pp. 590-591)
        Frank Maraun and Franz Goelz
      • 278. Leni Riefenstahl: Germany’s Number One Filmmaker (1937)
        (pp. 593-593)
        Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung
      • 279. Jews No Longer Permitted to Attend the Cinema—All Forms of Participation in Representations of German Culture Forbidden! (1938)
        (pp. 593-594)
      • 280. Charlie Chaplin: The Jewish Chimp in America (1940)
        (pp. 594-594)
        Der Stürmer
      • 281. The Eternal Jew: Film of a 2,000-Year Rat Migration (1940)
        (pp. 595-595)
      • 282. Review of The Eternal Jew (1941)
        (pp. 596-597)
      • 283. Review of Jew Süss (1940)
        (pp. 597-598)
        Gerhard Starke
      • 284. The Popularity of Jew Süss (1940)
        (pp. 599-599)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 285. Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator (1940)
        (pp. 599-601)
        Manfred Georg
      • 286. Hollywood Reports: On the Situation of Refugees in Hollywood (1940)
        (pp. 601-602)
    • 21. Politics and Entertainment:: Theater, Radio, and Television

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 603-605)

        THE CURSE OF HIGH CULTURE was that its favorite medium, drama, already seen by Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) as a means of educating the sensibilities of the public, could reach only a very limited audience. In 1889, the Berlin theatrical critic Otto Brahm (1856–1912) created the Freie Volksbühne (Free People’s Theater) to make available to the masses very inexpensive theater tickets for the new “naturalistic” dramas. Even with this (limited) attempt, at best thousands of urban dwellers visited a given “serious” play. The theater attempted to become part of mass culture, but it rarely succeeded. Only the more popular...

      • 287. The Thingstätte and Its Meaning for the Future of German Theater (1935)
        (pp. 606-607)
        Ludwig Moshamer
      • 288. The Passion of Germany 1933: Radio Play in Six Acts (1933)
        (pp. 607-609)
        Richard Euringer
      • 289. The Transformation of the Theater in the Third Reich (1939)
        (pp. 609-611)
        Hermann Wanderscheck
      • 290. On Performances of Works by [George] Bernard Shaw (1941)
        (pp. 611-612)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 291. Radio as the Eighth Great Power (1933)
        (pp. 612-616)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 292. Radio and Politics (1933)
        (pp. 616-617)
        Franz Hartung
      • 293. No More Stars! (1933)
        (pp. 618-619)
        Ferdinand Eckhardt
      • 294. Women and Radio: The Numbers (1934)
        (pp. 620-621)
        Lisa Peck
      • 295. 500 Schoolchildren in Berlin Tell about Radio (1934)
        (pp. 622-623)
        A. Wulff
      • 296. Soldiers of the German Army, Lend Us Your Ears! (1941)
        (pp. 623-624)
        Heinz Goedecke and Wilhelm Krug
      • 297. Armed Forces Radio Request Program Well Received (1940)
        (pp. 624-625)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 298. Illegal Broadcasts for England: Memo to Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1943)
        (pp. 625-626)
        Heinrich Himmler
      • 299. No Dialect in Radio Broadcasts (1942)
        (pp. 626-626)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 300. First Television Broadcast Launched (1935)
        (pp. 626-628)
    • 22. Jewish Culture under Nazi Persecution:: The Jewish Cultural League

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 629-631)

        ZIONISM, WHICH HAD ALREADY BECOME A POTENT FORCE in Germany by the 1910s, argued that only a return to a Jewish homeland (and Palestine was eventually the only option accepted) would assure the Jews the stability of a “peoplehood” as well as a national state. After the first months of the Nazi “revolution,” German Zionists accurately predicted that there was no future for Jews in Germany. One of these, Robert Weltsch (1891–1982), editor of the Jüdische Rundschau, the journal of the Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland (Zionist Organization for Germany), published his admonition of 1 April 1933—the day of...

      • 301. Let’s Get Started! (1933)
        (pp. 632-633)
        Kurt Singer
      • 302. Speech at the Opening of the Cultural Conference of the Reich Organization of Jewish Cultural Leagues in Germany (1936)
        (pp. 633-633)
        Kurt Singer
      • 303. The Policy of Purging Jews from the Theater (1936)
        (pp. 634-636)
        Hans Hinkel
      • 304. Wear the Yellow Badge with Pride! (1933)
        (pp. 636-638)
        Robert Weltsch
      • 305. The Reich Representative Council of German Jews in Germany after the Nuremberg Laws (1935)
        (pp. 638-639)
        C.-V. Zeitung
      • 306. Interview with Hans Hinkel: Must the Jews in Germany Starve? (1935)
        (pp. 639-641)
        Kongress-Korrespondenz and Hans Hinkel
      • 307. Encyclopedia Entries: Emigration, Distinctions, Emancipation, Military Service (1937)
        (pp. 642-643)
        Philo-Lexikon: Handbook of Jewish Knowledge
      • 308. Cultural Activities in the Vilna Ghetto (1942)
        (pp. 644-646)
        Culture Department of the Vilna Ghetto Judenrat

    • 23. Industry and Labor:: The Four-Year-Plan, Beauty of Labor, and Strength through Joy

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 649-650)

        DURING THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC, nationalists were divided between romantic anticapitalists who yearned nostalgically for a preindustrial, premodern past and the wing of the German Right that embraced technology, total mobilization, and the figure of the soldier of labor (the “Worker” in the famous essay by the novelist Ernst Jünger). The Nazis incorporated both of these elements, combining attacks on the corrupting influence of commercial civilization with the promotion of “German” labor, technology, and “rationalization” (a catchword of the 1920s meaning “scientific” approaches to management and efficient production). Typical of the regime’s fetish for productivity was the Four-Year Plan, announced in...

      • 309. Secret Memorandum on the Four-Year Plan (1936)
        (pp. 651-656)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 310. Senseless Work Is Un-German (1936)
        (pp. 657-658)
        Karl Arnhold
      • 311. On Recruiting Workers through Compulsory Membership and Social Bribery (1935)
        (pp. 658-659)
      • 312. On the Tasks of the Beauty of Labor Program (1934)
        (pp. 659-662)
        Karl Kretschmer
      • 313. Reconstruction Work in German Factories (1936)
        (pp. 662-663)
        Wilhelm Lotz
      • 314. Thoughts on Architecture in Industrial Construction (1938)
        (pp. 664-664)
        Emil Rudolf Mewes
      • 315. On the Anniversary of the Establishment of Strength through Joy (1934)
        (pp. 665-665)
        Robert Ley
      • 316. Travel, Hiking and Holiday Department (1936)
        (pp. 666-666)
        Horst Dressler-Andress
      • 317. Around Italy: The Great Travel Experience (1939)
        (pp. 666-667)
        Gertrud Meyer
      • 318. On “Strength through Joy” (1938, 1939)
        (pp. 668-668)
    • 24. Modernizing Germany:: The Autobahn and Americanism

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 669-671)

        BEFORE 1933, ADOLF HITLER could be counted as something of an admirer of the United States for its productive power and size. As a continental power, America represented for him the ideal ratio of population and territory; he attributed American productivity not to industrial output per se but to the economic potential afforded by its size and living space. At the same time, he reiterated his statement in Mein Kampf that the Jews were “the controlling masters of the producers in a nation of one hundred and twenty millions; only a single great man, [Henry] Ford, to their fury, still...

      • 319. The Führer and the Automobile (1938)
        (pp. 672-672)
        Wilfrid Bade
      • 320. Adolf Hitler on the Reichsautobahn (1938)
        (pp. 673-673)
        Gerhard Engel
      • 321. Nordic Man and Transportation (1937)
        (pp. 673-675)
        Fritz Todt
      • 322. The Reichsautobahn as All-Encompassing Architectural Marvel (1937)
        (pp. 675-677)
        Friedrich Tamms
      • 323. Five Years of Strength through Joy (1938)
        (pp. 677-679)
      • 324. Foreword to Adolf Hitler’s Roads and Buildings (1939)
        (pp. 679-680)
        Fritz Todt
      • 325. Is Modern Technology National? (1934)
        (pp. 680-682)
        Eugen Diesel
      • 326. The War Experience and Renewal of Science (1940)
        (pp. 682-682)
        Jakob Korn
      • 327. Felix versus USA: A German Takes on America (1934)
        (pp. 683-684)
        Hansjürgen Weidlich
      • 328. Germany—As Seen by Americans (1935)
        (pp. 684-685)
        J.F.E. Raschen
      • 329. Jerry Siegel Attacks! Superman the Jew (1940)
        (pp. 685-686)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 330. The Danger of Americanism (1944)
        (pp. 686-689)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 331. Unbounded Continent: Roosevelt’s Struggle for World Domination (1942)
        (pp. 689-692)
        Giselher Wirsing

    • 25. The 1936 Olympics and the World of Sports

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 695-696)

        IN 1933, ALL INDEPENDENT SPORTS and free-time associations were subject to “coordination” (Gleichschaltung) to implement their complete Aryanization and subordination to the Führer principle. After 30 January 1934, sports were overseen by the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (German Reich League for Physical Education), headed by the Reichsportführer (Reich sports leader), Hans von Tschammer und Osten—though other Nazi organizations like the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labor Front) and the Hitler Youth had competing sports associations. After a brief period during which “wild” (unaffiliated) sports groups continued to exist, the reorganization of German sports led to the disbanding and prohibition of all...

      • 332. Olympic Games: German Style (1935)
        (pp. 697-698)
        Max Ostrop
      • 333. German Tourism and the Olympic Year (1936)
        (pp. 698-698)
        Friedrich Mahlo
      • 334. The Playing Fields of Nazi Germany (1934)
        (pp. 698-700)
        Harry Hirsch
      • 335. Preserve the Olympic Ideal (1935)
        (pp. 700-704)
        Committee on Fair Play in Sports
      • 336. Letter to Avery Brundage (1935)
        (pp. 704-704)
        Helene Mayer
      • 337. Schmeling’s Knockout Victory over Louis: And the Match Goes to the Opponent (1936)
        (pp. 704-705)
        Völkischer Beobachter
      • 338. Jewish Victor in the German College Championships (1935)
        (pp. 705-705)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 339. Sports in the Army (1937)
        (pp. 706-706)
        Count Wolf Baudissin
      • 340. Physical Pedagogy (1941)
        (pp. 707-707)
        Johannes Öhquist
      • 341. Sports Hygiene, (1936)
        (pp. 707-708)
        A. Mallwitz
      • 342. Rejuvenating Life, Enthusiasm for Life, Rejuvenating the Volk (1936)
        (pp. 708-709)
        Geist und Schönheit
    • 26. “Amusmang”:: Laughter in the Third Reich

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 710-711)

        The Berliners had a slang word for it, an adaptation of the very high-class French word amusement, pronounced in the working-class neighborhoods of Berlin as “amusmang.” Certainly, the master of Amusmang in the 1920s was the popular artist Heinrich Zille (1858–1929), whose caricatures of working-class Berliners at play was a source of amusement for all. Zille’s take on the world was funny, and most people who saw his work got the point: being poor did not make you less than human; indeed, it gave you a certain ironic way of seeing the world. The annual “Zille Ball” at the...

      • 343. What Will Santa Bring? (1935)
        (pp. 712-713)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 344. Humor à la Nazi (1939)
        (pp. 714-714)
        American Committee for Anti-Nazi Literature
      • 345. Drunken Nazi Leader Speaks against Liquor and Tobacco (1939)
        (pp. 714-714)
        American Committee for Anti-Nazi Literature
      • 346. We’re Not So! (1936)
        (pp. 714-715)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 347. Fool’s License for Artists (1939)
        (pp. 715-716)
        Das Schwarze Korps
      • 348. Coffee Shortage Announced (1939)
        (pp. 716-717)
        American Committee for Anti-Nazi Literature
      • 349. Swastika Crossword Puzzle (1934)
        (pp. 717-718)
        Illustrierte Beobachter

    • 27. The Holocaust Begins:: Violence, Deportation, and Ghettoization, 1939–1942

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 721-722)

        NAZI IDEOLOGY CONCEIVED of the opposition between Aryans and Jews as a world-historical battle for racial supremacy. A racially pure Germany demanded, as Hitler’s chief ideologist Alfred Rosenberg (1893–1946) wrote in his 1930 Myth of the Twentieth Century, the radical removal, indeed elimination, of the Jews. Only through such an apocalyptic event could Germany again become a “healthy” nation. Upon reading Rosenberg in 1942, the Jewish philologist Victor Klemperer, living with his non-Jewish wife, saw the tract as an almost comic commentary on the time: “Only Nordic man has true religion, true artistic genius, true science, is truly able...

      • 350. Speech to the Great German Reichstag (1939)
        (pp. 723-724)
        Adolf Hitler
      • 351. Bolshevism and Synagogue (1941)
        (pp. 724-725)
        Julius Streicher
      • 352. Four Decrees Issued in Occupied Poland, 1939–1941
        (pp. 725-727)
      • 353. The Eternal Shame: Black France Enlists Negroes as Cannon Fodder for the Eternal Jew (1940)
        (pp. 727-728)
        Der Stürmer
      • 354. The Jewish Question as World Problem (1941)
        (pp. 728-731)
        Alfred Rosenberg
      • 355. Reading Rosenberg’s Myth in 1942 (1942)
        (pp. 732-732)
        Victor Klemperer
      • 356. Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Racial Aliens in the East (1940)
        (pp. 733-734)
        Heinrich Himmler
      • 357. Persecution of the Sinti and Roma: Three Decrees (1938, 1939)
        (pp. 735-736)
      • 358. The Military and the Slaughter of the Jews (1940)
        (pp. 736-737)
        Johannes Blaskowitz
      • 359. The Jews Are Guilty! (1941)
        (pp. 737-740)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 360. Order to Heydrich to Begin Preparations for the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (1941)
        (pp. 740-740)
        Hermann Göring
      • 361. Orders for Conduct in the East: Crushing the Jewish-Bolshevist System (1941)
        (pp. 740-741)
        Walter von Reichenau
      • 362. Jews Practice World Politics (1942)
        (pp. 742-744)
        Karl Baumböck
    • 28. The Annihilation of European Jewry, 1942–1945

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 745-748)

        HITLER PROBABLY NEVER COMMITTED to paper an explicit order to exterminate European Jewry. However, the decision to murder all Jews under Nazi control was likely made between September 1941 and January 1942. On 12 December 1941, the day after Germany declared war on the United States, Hitler gave a speech to the leaders of the Nazi Party in Berlin, some of which Goebbels recorded in his diary. “In respect of the Jewish question, the Führer has decided to make a clean sweep. The world war is here, the annihilation of the Jews must be the necessary result. This question is...

      • 363. Policy and Operations Concerning Jews in the Occupied Territories (1939)
        (pp. 749-751)
        Reinhard Heydrich
      • 364. Wannsee Protocol (1942)
        (pp. 752-757)
      • 365. Battle against the Jews (1942)
        (pp. 758-758)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 366. The Jew (1943)
        (pp. 759-760)
        Reich Leader SS/SS Main Office
      • 367. Evaluating the Ghetto: Interview in Warsaw, 1941
        (pp. 760-764)
        Hillel Zeitlin and Israel Milejkowski
      • 368. Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniaków (1940, 1942)
        (pp. 764-765)
      • 369. Warsaw Ghetto Diary (1942)
        (pp. 765-766)
        Stefan Ernest
      • 370. A Summons to Resistance, Vilna Ghetto (1942)
        (pp. 767-769)
        Kovner Abba and Others
      • 371. Diary Entry (1943)
        (pp. 769-770)
        Hans Frank
      • 372. Racial Political Prerequisites for the Solution of the Jewish Problem (1943)
        (pp. 770-770)
        Walter Gross
      • 373. Diary of the Łódź Ghetto (1942)
        (pp. 771-775)
        Józef Zelkowicz
      • 374. Notebooks from the Łódź Ghetto (1942)
        (pp. 775-776)
        Dawid Sierakowiak
      • 375. Warsaw Ghetto Diary (1943)
        (pp. 776-778)
        Stanislaw Sznapman
      • 376. Warsaw Ghetto Diary (1944)
        (pp. 778-779)
        Stefania Staszewska
      • 377. Report on the Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (1943)
        (pp. 779-785)
        Jürgen Stroop
      • 378. Speech at Posen (1943)
        (pp. 785-791)
        Heinrich Himmler
      • 379. Theresienstadt Diary (1944)
        (pp. 791-795)
        Egon (Gonda) Redlich
      • 380. Expanding Auschwitz (1942)
        (pp. 795-796)
        Oswald Pohl
      • 381. Auschwitz Protocols (1944)
        (pp. 797-802)
        Alfred Wetzler and Rudolf Vrba
      • 382. The Czech Transport: A Chronicle of the Auschwitz Sonderkommando (1944)
        (pp. 803-814)
        Zalmen Gradowski
    • 29. Total War:: 1939–1945

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 815-817)

        HITLER ANNEXED THE AUSTRIAN REPUBLIC to Austrian popular acclaim and jubilation in March 1938. His next domino, Czechoslovakia, proved something of a disappointment since Britain and France acceded to his wishes in order to avert the war he desired. Neville Chamberlain and Eduard Daladier met with Hitler and Mussolini in Munich on 29 September 1938 and agreed to the occupation of the Sudetenland. The word Munich has since become a synonym for appeasement—a foolhardy surrender to Hitler’s blackmail. But after German troops marched into Prague in March 1939, in violation of the agreement, Stalin dropped his policy of “collective...

      • 383. Notes on Settlement and Population Surveys in the Reclaimed Eastern Provinces (1939)
        (pp. 818-819)
        Theodor Schieder
      • 384. Letter from Poland (1939)
        (pp. 819-820)
        Hellmuth Stieff
      • 385. Bilingualism as Means and Expression of German Superiority in the East (1940)
        (pp. 820-820)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 386. Address to the Leaders of the NSDAP in Vienna (1940)
        (pp. 821-821)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 387. Africa in Paris (1940)
        (pp. 821-822)
        Der Stürmer
      • 388. Guidelines for the Treatment of Political Commissars (1941)
        (pp. 822-822)
      • 389. To Alfred Rosenberg: On the Treatment of Non-German Populations in the Eastern Territories (1942)
        (pp. 823-823)
        Martin Bormann
      • 390. Rumors and Murmurings (1942)
        (pp. 824-825)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 391. The Image of Russia in the Populace (1942)
        (pp. 825-826)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 392. Why Racial Hygiene in Wartime? (1944)
        (pp. 826-828)
        Hermann Ernst Grobig
      • 393. Now, People, Rise Up and Let the Storm Winds Blow! (1943)
        (pp. 828-831)
        Joseph Goebbels
      • 394. Response to Joseph Goebbels (1943)
        (pp. 831-832)
        Thomas Mann
      • 395. Reactions to Goebbels’s Speech (1943)
        (pp. 832-833)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 396. Reactions to the Katyn Forest Massacre (1943)
        (pp. 833-833)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 397. Safeguarding the Future of the German People (1944)
        (pp. 834-838)
        Martin Bormann

    • 30. Communists, Socialists, Youth, and the Conservative Resistance

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 841-843)

        MANY GERMAN MEN AND WOMEN resisted Nazism for a variety of reasons, some of them noble and heroic, others less so. Before 1933, the Communists and the Social Democrats were Nazism’s most visible opponents. During 1932, street battles between Nazi brownshirts and members of the Communist and socialist militias were a daily occurrence, though in November, the Communists cooperated with the Nazis during the Berlin transportation strike. Otto Wels (1873–1939), chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany since 1919, was the only member of the Reichstag to speak against Hitler’s Enabling Act (Law to Remedy the Distress of...

      • 398. The Road to Power (1933)
        (pp. 844-848)
        The Brown Book
      • 399. The Bloody Thirtieth of June in Germany (1934)
        (pp. 848-849)
      • 400. Socialism’s New Beginning (1934)
        (pp. 850-851)
        Miles and Walter Löwenheim
      • 401. The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933)
        (pp. 851-852)
        Wilhelm Reich
      • 402. Propaganda as a Weapon (1937)
        (pp. 852-855)
        Willi Münzenberg
      • 403. The White Rose: The Second Leaflet (1942)
        (pp. 855-856)
        Hans Scholl, Willi Graf and Christoph Probst
      • 404. Reports on the Program to Combat Criminal Subversion (1943)
        (pp. 857-859)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 405. Reactions to the Weekly Newsreel for 27 February–5 March 1943
        (pp. 859-860)
        Secret Report of the Security Service of the Reichsführer SS
      • 406. Decree on Youth Gangs (1944)
        (pp. 860-861)
        Heinrich Himmler
      • 407. Beck’s Response to Hitler’s Arguments on 5 November 1937 (1939)
        (pp. 862-863)
        Ludwig Beck
      • 408. Diary Entry (1941)
        (pp. 863-864)
        Ulrich von Hassell
      • 409. Principles for the New Order (the Kreisau Circle) (1943)
        (pp. 865-866)
        Helmuth James von Moltke
      • 410. (Prepared) Radio Address (1944)
        (pp. 866-868)
        Carl Friedrich Goerdeler

    • 31. Hitler’s Last Will and Testament

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 871-871)

        Adolf Hitler dictated his last will and testament to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on 29 April 1945. He and Eva Braun married that day and committed suicide the following day, three days before the surrender of Berlin to the Soviets on 2 May and one week before the end of World War II in Europe on May 8. It consists of two documents, a personal will and a political testament.

        Hitler’s personal will states that he chose death over disgrace or capitulation and specifies that his body—and that of Eva Braun (not mentioned by name)...

      • 411. Political Testament (1945)
        (pp. 872-874)
        Adolf Hitler
  18. Bibliography of English-Language Works
    (pp. 875-886)
  19. Credits
    (pp. 887-894)
  20. Index
    (pp. 895-924)
  21. Back Matter
    (pp. 925-926)