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One Land, Two States

One Land, Two States: Israel and Palestine as Parallel States

Mark LeVine
Mathias Mossberg
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: 1
Pages: 288
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  • Book Info
    One Land, Two States
    Book Description:

    One Land, Two Statesimagines a new vision for Israel and Palestine in a situation where the peace process has failed to deliver an end of conflict. "If the land cannot be shared by geographical division, and if a one-state solution remains unacceptable," the book asks, "can the land be shared in some other way?"Leading Palestinian and Israeli experts along with international diplomats and scholars answer this timely question by examining a scenario with two parallel state structures, both covering the whole territory between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, allowing for shared rather than competing claims of sovereignty. Such a political architecture would radically transform the nature and stakes of the Israel-Palestine conflict, open up for Israelis to remain in the West Bank and maintain their security position, enable Palestinians to settle in all of historic Palestine, and transform Jerusalem into a capital for both of full equality and independence-all without disturbing the demographic balance of each state. Exploring themes of security, resistance, diaspora, globalism, and religion, as well as forms of political and economic power that are not dependent on claims of exclusive territorial sovereignty, this pioneering book offers new ideas for the resolution of conflicts worldwide.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95840-1
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  5. Foreword: Two States on One Land—Parallel States as an Option for Israel and Palestine
    (pp. xv-xx)

    The two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the long-undisputed doyenne of the global agenda—a magnificent flagship presiding over a fleet of elusive international causes. Notour d’horizonof world hot spots is complete without the ritual hand-wringing over this maddening diplomatic puzzle. It is so deeply entrenched on the agenda that it boasts its own collegial international steward, self-appointed but Security Council–endorsed, in the shape of the Middle East Quartet, formed in 2002, composed of Russia, the United States, the European Union, and the UN secretary-general.

    Well into its seventh decade, the idea of a two-state solution...

  6. CHAPTER 1 One Land—Two States? An Introduction to the Parallel States Concept
    (pp. 1-28)

    The conflict between Palestinians and Israelis has now raged for the better part of a century. Israel was established as a state in 1948, but the origins of the conflict go back much further, at least to the first days of the Zionist movement. Some say the conflict was born more than three thousand years ago, when Moses espied the green strip of Jericho from Mount Nebo, on the other side of the Jordan River; or earlier still, when Abraham first passed through the land of Canaan and rested in Shechem, close to today’s Nablus.

    From the biblical period through...

  7. CHAPTER 2 Can Sovereignty Be Divided?
    (pp. 29-43)

    Ever since Eris threw the proverbial golden apple among the goddesses, it has been tempting to blame the tragic outcome of that episode on the vanity of the latter rather than on the cunning of the former. But what made the apple of discord into a bone of contention was the inscription on it reading, “To the fairest.” Apples are divisible, but the attribute of being the fairest is not, and whenever some good is perceived as indivisible, the seed of a zero-sum game is sown.

    This is true for sovereignty. Although there is nothing to indicate that political authority...

  8. CHAPTER 3 Parallel Sovereignty: Dividing and Sharing Core State Functions
    (pp. 44-67)

    The Israeli-Palestinian conflict goes back at least to the so-called Balfour Declaration issued by the British government on November 2, 1917, on the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The pertinent text states that the British government will favor “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, . . . it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” There is a debate over the meaning of this declaration, but it suffices to say that such a national home exists...

  9. CHAPTER 4 Security Strategy for the Parallel States Project: An Israeli Perspective
    (pp. 68-93)

    In the eyes of old-fashioned, left-leaning Zionists, which we consider ourselves to be, the Parallel States Project (PSP) is the outcome of a crisis. It is an original way of dealing with a long-standing failure. Israel and the Palestinians have so far failed to develop a framework that will enable them to live alongside each other in a peaceful manner. After approximately a hundred years of bloodshed, pain, distrust, and a persistent unwillingness to reach a compromise, Israelis and Palestinians are close to the point at which the old two-state solution will not be applicable. And if the old ways...

  10. CHAPTER 5 Palestinian National Security
    (pp. 94-122)

    For an understanding of how the Parallel States concept relates to the fundamentals of Palestinian national security, it is important to take a close look at the Palestinians’ basic security needs, interests, national goals, and threat perceptions, as well as the possible elements of a national security doctrine. These sections provide the background to the discussion at the end of this chapter of how Palestinian security would be affected in a Parallel States structure.

    In broad historical terms, the Palestinians view themselves as having been on the receiving end of the Zionist movement’s and then Israel’s overwhelming coercive and military...

  11. CHAPTER 6 An Israel-Palestine Parallel States Economy by 2035
    (pp. 123-151)

    The same imperatives underlying the search for new ideas for a permanent-status Israeli-Palestinian political agreement drive the inconclusive debate about the optimal economic dimensions of a future peace settlement. A decade of negotiations about “economic permanent status” have been exhausted intellectually and rendered moot by prolonged occupation, expanded settlement, and the nonexistent prospects for a political settlement. A century of Zionist colonization and the past forty-four years of military occupation have created a perverse and structurally lopsided economic relationship between the two peoples. The two-state solution, as traditionally conceived and currently advocated, would have difficulty correcting this situation even over...

  12. CHAPTER 7 Economic Considerations in Implementing a Parallel States Structure
    (pp. 152-174)

    The Israel-Palestinian conflict continues to be immune to resolution; the concept of “two states for two peoples” that was at the heart of the Oslo negotiating process has proved inapplicable to conditions on the ground. The economic component of the peace process, which constituted the majority of the text of the Declaration of Principles famously signed on the White House lawn in September 1993 and which was the core component of the “New Middle East” vision behind Oslo, has equally failed to produce meaningful benefits, particularly to the Palestinian population.

    Yet even as scholars and policy-makers search for new kinds...

  13. CHAPTER 8 Parallel Sovereignty in Practice: Judicial Dimensions of a Parallel States Structure
    (pp. 175-204)

    Is it possible to construct a legal system and a judiciary in which the principle of parallel sovereignty is a founding pillar? Can two sovereignties coexist side by side—not merely in theory, but in physical space—sharing executive, legislative, and judicial power over the same territory or parts thereof? Considering the novelty of implementing a Parallel States structure, any definitive answer will have to wait for such a structure to be put into practice. However, by attempting to discuss the legal-judicial dimension of the structure as an attempt to bring the discussion down to specifics, we might begin to...

  14. CHAPTER 9 Religion in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: From Obstacle to Peace to Force for Reconciliation?
    (pp. 205-232)

    Among the main concerns of participants in the Parallel States Project (PSP) has been to imagine a two-state solution that maintains a Jewish identity for Israel while addressing the Palestinian requirements both for statehood and for the preservation and development of their unique identity.¹ In both cases the link between religion and the formation of national discourses is crucial, as is religion’s psychological function in shaping the contours of the identities of each and the conflict between them. It is thus clear that any discussion of parallel states must involve considerable attention to culture and religion. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict may...

  15. CHAPTER 10 The Necessity for Thinking outside the Box
    (pp. 233-243)

    “Land for peace” was the formula on which the two-state solution was predicated when the peace process was launched in 1992. When the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip was signed in 1995, there was great promise that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict would end by the year 2000, concluding the five-year term jointly agreed to for the establishment of the Palestinian state on land occupied by Israel during the 1967 war. The famous “land for peace” formula would see Israel withdraw from the occupied West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Gaza Strip to allow for a Palestinian state....

  16. CHAPTER 11 Parallel Lives, Parallel States: Imagining a Different Future
    (pp. 244-254)

    “We are not going to get rid of them. They will continue to live around us and in our midst.”¹

    I wrote those words to open an article forHaaretzon the Parallel States plan as the 2013 Knesset campaign was drawing to a close. The sentiment was expressed in response to a comment by Israel’s newest political savior, former newsman Yair Lapid, in a rally for his Yesh Atid (There Is a Future) party on October 29, 2012. “We have to get rid of the Palestinians,” he declared when asked about his peace plan.²Lhipater—to expel, get rid...

  17. Contributors
    (pp. 255-260)
  18. Index
    (pp. 261-274)