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The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture

The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Volume 21: Art and Architecture

Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 592
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  • Book Info
    The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture
    Book Description:

    From the Potomac to the Gulf, artists were creating in the South even before it was recognized as a region. The South has contributed to America's cultural heritage with works as diverse as Benjamin Henry Latrobe's architectural plans for the nation's Capitol, the wares of the Newcomb Pottery, and Richard Clague's tonalist Louisiana bayou scenes. This comprehensive volume shows how, through the decades and centuries, the art of the South expanded from mimetic portraiture to sophisticated responses to national and international movements. The essays treat historic and current trends in the visual arts and architecture, major collections and institutions, and biographies of artists themselves. As leading experts on the region's artists and their work, editors Judith H. Bonner and Estill Curtis Pennington frame the volume's contributions with insightful overview essays on the visual arts and architecture in the American South.

    eISBN: 978-1-4696-0022-2
    Subjects: Art & Art History, Architecture and Architectural History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xviii)

    In 1989 years of planning and hard work came to fruition when the University of North Carolina Press joined the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi to publish the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. While all those involved in writing, reviewing, editing, and producing the volume believed it would be received as a vital contribution to our understanding of the American South, no one could have anticipated fully the widespread acclaim it would receive from reviewers and other commentators. But the Encyclopedia was indeed celebrated, not only by scholars but also by popular audiences with...

    (pp. xix-xxii)

    This volume of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture offers factual and interpretive information on one of the most significant areas of southern creative achievement. The South’s literary and musical traditions have received more sustained scholarly study than its visual and building traditions, but the latter are rich and provide the most revealing access to the region’s aesthetic sensibilities. Art and Architecture surveys the sweep of history, from the colonial era to the 21st century, capturing the enormous diversity in the region as seen through its artwork and building styles. All major genres of painting and building have been represented...

    (pp. 1-14)

    Combining art and architecture in a single encyclopedic reference book is problematic. Artworks are deeply personal expressions of the artist’s imagination, created by an individuated craft. Architecture is a collective expression of design, spatial occupation, material resource appropriation, and the deployment of a labor force. Though space, material, and labor are all factors of the socioeconomic construct, they are not the usual candidates for aesthetic evaluation. However, as part of the socioeconomic history of architecture the critical issues they provoke have been addressed in several individual entries in this volume. At the same time it is also important to note...

    (pp. 15-58)

    Art in the South, 1800–1920. Though H. L. Mencken’s oft-quoted and much-lamented reference to the South as the “Sahara of the Bozart” has long been refuted by the achievements of the southern literary renascence, his stinging comments on the visual arts are worth revisiting as a prelude to an entire volume focused upon that very subject. From his perspective in 1917, “there is not a single picture gallery worth going into[,] … a single public monument that is worth looking at, or a single workshop devoted to the making of beautiful things,” and “when you come to … painters,...

  7. Architects of Colonial Williamsburg
    (pp. 59-64)

    From the beginning of its restoration in the late 1920s, Colonial Williamsburg has been conceived as a place where Americans learn about their history. As early as 1932, its benefactor, John D. Rockefeller Jr., preferred the motto “That the future may learn from the past” to more esoteric statements of purpose. Since then, few fourth-graders or museum administrators have regarded Williamsburg as merely a preservation project. For more than 50 years, the town has maintained a powerful grip on the national consciousness. Accordingly, industrialist Lee Iacocca stated that the purpose of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island was to...

  8. Colonial Revival Architecture
    (pp. 64-67)

    The Colonial Revival subsumes what can be called the “antebellum revival.” This would include 20th-century houses built in the Greek Revival or columnar styles of the 1840s and 1850s. By the 1930s and 1940s these original structures had become emblems of the image—real or imagined—of the South’s white antebellum “aristocratic” culture, which by this time had gained national acceptance. This perceived image had some basis in fact but was considerably nourished by popular novels and films. In England the Queen Anne style revived vernacular English domestic architecture of the medieval period, but in America the style was related...

  9. Decorative Arts
    (pp. 67-72)

    In 1949 the American curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, speaking at the First Antiques Forum at Williamsburg, noted that “very little of artistic merit was made south of Baltimore.” The history of southern decorative art is not, however, one of underachievement—but of underappreciation. Much of this neglect was at the hands of native sons and daughters—until the late 20th century. Well-assembled collections of antiques appeared in New England by 1793, but such collections were largely unknown in the South at that time, except for the occasional preservation of inherited family pieces or items belonging to Revolutionary...

  10. Farm Buildings
    (pp. 72-78)

    Farm buildings are working buildings. The number, kind, and arrangement of buildings on a farm vary regionally according to the type of agriculture practiced in a given locality and inherited ethnic and traditional ideas. Geographical diversity is complicated by change over time. Alterations in the agricultural system of a locality may result in nearly complete replacement of older farm buildings with newer ones. In some parts of eastern Virginia, for example, the change from tobacco to corn, peanut, and hog farming resulted in the nearly complete destruction of the area’s 18th- and early 19th- century farm buildings. More commonly, changes...

  11. French Architecture
    (pp. 78-80)

    Although France’s colonial domination of Louisiana lasted only from 1682 to the 1760s, French influence upon the architecture and culture of the region was profound. Encompassing all the territory drained by the Mississippi River, Louisiana was claimed by La Salle, who in 1682 had descended the river from the French holdings in Canada. Not until 1698, however, did Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville sail from France to build the first French outpost on the Gulf Coast. Situated on the eastern shore of Biloxi Bay, Fort Maurepas was a modest example of a system of fortifications developed by French military engineer Sebastien...

  12. Gardens
    (pp. 81-86)

    The identity of the South, perhaps more so than in any other region of America, is inextricably associated with its physical environment. Over time, this relationship has produced distinctive expressions of culture, commerce, politics, and social perspectives emerging from numerous characteristics: geomorphic conditions that defined an agrarian economy, a capacity to live “on the land,” a willingness to defend beliefs based on agrarian perspectives, the intergenerational associations among residents and their place of residence, and an appreciation for the land as an expression of cultural identity. These factors have created a culture of “place,” the identification and celebration of which...

  13. Georgian Revival Architecture
    (pp. 86-91)

    Within the space of a quarter century, from the 1920s to the beginning of World War II, a body of truly distinguished domestic architecture was produced in the South. These structures, Georgian Revival houses, are distinct from those of the early 20th century and those of the post–World War II period. They occupy a place in the architectural history of the South—and particularly the Upland South—not unlike that of the houses of the mid-19th century. Both were products of a rapidly developing economy, and both were places on which owners had spent lavishly in the creation of...

  14. German Architecture
    (pp. 91-95)

    Germanic settlement in the South had two main sources: movement south from Pennsylvania in the 18th century and immigration to Texas in the mid-19th century. The eastern Germans abandoned their distinctive architectural traditions early in the 19th century, while the Texas Germans maintained theirs only until the end of the century. Nevertheless, the diversity of Germanic regional traditions in Europe is reflected in the very different buildings that can still be seen in the two regions.

    Germans settled in the South in the 17th century, and their names can be found in the record books from an early date. Architecturally,...

  15. Gothic Revival Architecture
    (pp. 95-102)

    Despite a preoccupation with classical architecture and culture, the South has always flirted with a Gothic identity. The concepts of chivalry, feudalism, and aristocracy are so deeply embedded in the southern psyche that they remain there today. To truly understand the southern Gothic Revival buildings, they must be seen as part of a larger social as well as architectural phenomenon.

    Southern interest in the Middle Ages expressed itself in numerous ways. One was an extravagant admiration for romantic-antiquarian literature like Sir Walter Scott’s Waverley novels. A host of minor southern writers before the Civil War emulated Scott’s style, and southern...

  16. Greek Revival Architecture
    (pp. 102-107)

    In the popular imagination, Greek Revival architecture, especially the great plantation house, is symbolic of the antebellum South. The potency of this image has discouraged not only analysis of its origins but also consideration of its validity. Most frequently, such architecture has been discussed in the context of romantic beauty, as the residue of an aristocratic culture somehow akin to the “Athenian Golden Age.” At its best, this myth has created such visions as the neoromantic photographic studies of Clarence John Laughlin—themselves masterpieces of 20th-century southern art. At its worst, the image has obscured the complex forces that were...

  17. Historiography of Southern Architecture
    (pp. 107-111)

    The historiography of southern architecture has gone through three major phases. From its roots in local boosterism of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to the more formalized advent of architectural history as an academic discipline in the early 20th century to its theoretical expansion since the 1960s, the study of the history of architecture in the American South has gradually broadened its scope and reach. Southern architecture has traditionally been neglected in surveys of American architecture, and most scholarly attention to its buildings has come from architects and scholars living in southern states. And although the historiographic methods...

  18. Industrial 19th-Century Architecture
    (pp. 111-115)

    No cohesive southern industrial architecture emerged during the 19th century. Despite the growth of sectionalism, the ornamentation and construction techniques of southern mills revealed that they were part of a national movement. The millwrights, engineers, and, in a few cases, architects who planned these structures copied earlier northern models and rarely incorporated any innovations. The configuration of many 19th-century factories was dictated by the manufacturing process, so that specific types of industries developed distinctive buildings with little regional variation. A company’s wealth usually determined the degree of embellishment. Stone, wood, or brick covered early mills, but over time brick exteriors...

  19. Nonresidential 20th-Century Architecture
    (pp. 115-118)

    The nonresidential southern architectural styles of the early 20th century can be divided into the same two categories as residential architecture—historic and nonhistoric. Period revivals were very popular in the conservative South. The same styles that adorned residential structures could also be found on non-residential buildings. The French, Spanish, Dutch, and English Colonial Revival styles, as well as the Federal and Georgian, were very popular, as were the Renaissance, Tudor, and neo-Italianate styles. In addition, four other historical styles were commonly employed for nonresidential structures—Gothic Revival, neoclassical, stripped-down classical, and Beaux-Arts.

    The Gothic Revival style (1900–1940) of...

  20. Painting and Painters, 1564–1790
    (pp. 118-122)

    The first two important, but unsuccessful, European attempts to establish colonies in the part of North America that is now the United States were in the South. In each of these, an artist-draftsman accompanied the expeditions and was charged with recording impressions of the peoples, the flora, and the fauna of the region, as well as with mapmaking. Thus, Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues in 1564 and 1565 accompanied the French expedition that established a shortlived Huguenot settlement on the St. John’s River in Florida, and John White served as cartographer and draftsman to Sir Walter Raleigh’s 1585 expedition that...

  21. Painting and Painters, 1790–1860
    (pp. 122-125)

    Portraiture was the most popular art form, in both the North and the South, during the early years of the rapidly expanding new republic. Portrait painters were legion, and the careers of many have not been examined. Even though the South was less densely populated than the North, many artists practiced their skills in local communities, both large and small. Thomas Cantwell Healy worked in Port Gibson, Miss., in the 1850s, and a number of French-born artists, especially Jean-Joseph Vaudechamp and Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans, established themselves in New Orleans during the 1830s through the 1850s. Artists like Matthew Harris...

  22. Painting and Painters, 1860–1920
    (pp. 125-130)

    The differences in circumstances between the South and its peoples and the rest of the nation were probably felt most acutely by southerners during and after the Civil War, extending until World War I. In many cases, these differences lasted until World War II—and, in part, still exist. They affected artists and their choices of subjects in subtle ways and significantly reduced their chances for showing and selling their works. Nevertheless, artists who worked in the South were influenced by the same artistic trends that influenced artists in other parts of the country.

    During the Civil War, Winslow Homer,...

  23. Painting and Painters, 1920–1960
    (pp. 130-138)

    The modern period in southern painting can be said to begin in the early 1920s with the activities of the Fugitive group at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. Although the Fugitives were essentially a literary group, they were also concerned with theories of artistic expression in general, especially with regard to the South. Their importance lies in their cosmopolitan attitude toward creative expression. The four major figures in the movement were Donald Davidson, John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, and Robert Penn Warren. Although respecting the new modernism that spanned national boundaries, they regretted that southern culture, as they had known it,...

  24. Painting and Painters, 1960–1980
    (pp. 138-140)

    In studying contemporary art in the South, one must explore signs and symbols associated with the region in the popular imagination and pay particular attention to the manner in which these have emerged in the visual arts. If one is indeed shaped by the environment, daily life, and early experiences, then the concept of a “southern” type of art is as inevitable as history. The internal characteristics of southern art, especially when it comes to modern and contemporary paintings, present a far from tidy field, partly because the region itself is so heterogeneous. One can distinguish between the Deep South...

  25. Painting and Painters, 1980–2012
    (pp. 140-148)

    Historically, artistic trends are cyclic in their progression from an emphasis on naturalistic and figural art to elongated or abstract figures, followed by a return to the subject of human forms. Studies have recorded the move from primitively rendered Cycladic figures to Greek idealistic sculptures to overly naturalistic figures of the Roman period. Elongated Byzantine representations of the human form shifted to weightless bodies during the medieval period, followed by the Renaissance emphasis on humanism. Subsequently, elongated mannerist figures became dynamic baroque figures. The playful rococo style gave way to the gravity of the human figure in realism, and then...

  26. Photography and Photographers
    (pp. 148-160)

    “Southern photography” is a different thing from “photography in the South,” yet in order to see the character of either, both should be addressed. Taken together, the photograph is a cloth woven of images by residents and visitors, artists and documentarians, opportunists, journeymen, professionals, savants, and amateurs. “Outsiders,” that is, those not from the southern states, have often created compelling individual images or bodies of work that collectively portray the South—its people, its activities, its natural character. “Southern” is a big tent, with plenty of room for particular expressions, ideas, poses, and subjects. This photography is often about the...

  27. Queen Anne and Eastlake Styles of Architecture
    (pp. 160-163)

    The Queen Anne style of architecture was conceived in England by Richard Norman Shaw during the 1860s, and the term is a misnomer. Shaw at first borrowed details from the rural manor houses not of Queen Anne’s reign but of Queen Elizabeth’s sovereignty. The erroneous designation seems attributable to English architect John James Stevenson in the 1870s.

    Shaw’s houses were widely published in the architectural press and thus came to be imitated in the United States in the early 1870s. The popular acceptance of the Queen Anne style in America, however, can be attributed to the Centennial Exhibition of 1876...

  28. Residential 20th-Century Architecture
    (pp. 163-166)

    The rapidly expanding middle class and the enormous mobility offered by the automobile created demands for suburban housing. Houses had to be flexible enough to accommodate a changing society and inexpensive enough to be affordable. Consequently, 20th-century houses differed immensely from 19th-century houses in scale and floor plan. Southern housing of the early 20th century can be divided into two categories—those free from historical precedents and those that rely on historical eclecticism.

    The most popular nontraditional architectural style of the period was the California style (1900–1940), sometimes referred to as the Bungalow style. “California” seemed to be the...

  29. Resort Architecture
    (pp. 166-173)

    Resort architecture developed as a moneyed leisure class developed in American cities, largely in the 19th century. Most of the earliest American resorts were concentrated in the Northeast within easy reach of large urban centers like New York and Boston. The famed resort hotels of Saratoga Springs and the Catskill Mountain House provided restorative and scenic respites from urban life. With the South’s more sparse population, southern resorts developed contemporaneously but more slowly than their northern counterparts. The exploitation of existing natural landscapes, the development of the railroad, and the growing culture of the “winter vacation” transformed southern resorts from...

  30. Sculpture
    (pp. 173-181)

    The lack of sculpture was one item in H. L. Mencken’s indictment of culture in the early 20th- century South, and scholars have generally echoed his sentiments. The South has had, however, a twofold tradition of sculpture—monumental works on the grand scale and folk sculpture on a more humble scale, in the form of stone carving, wood carving, ironworking, and other crafts. Although the monumental work in the region is not categorized with the highest artistic achievements, it is a notable reflection of southern cultural values. The folk sculpture of the region is likewise rooted in regional life, and...

  31. Social History of Architecture
    (pp. 181-191)

    What is “southern architecture”? In a series of lectures delivered at Alabama College on the eve of World War II, distinguished architecture critic Lewis Mumford declared that the best southern architecture fused adaptation to local social, economic, and geographic conditions with “universal” human values. He found these qualities in the work of southern-born architects Thomas Jefferson and Henry Hobson Richardson.

    While one would want to think more broadly than Mumford did to understand architecture in the South, his lectures (later published as The South in Architecture [1941]) did point toward a significant characteristic of architecture in the South: that it...

  32. Vernacular Architecture (Lowland South)
    (pp. 191-196)

    The vernacular, or common, architecture of a region is an indicator of its economic development and changing social values. The realities of life in the 17th-century Lowland South shaped builders’ choices of plan types and building technologies, and these have remained at the core of the region’s vernacular architecture. The vernacular building system of the Lowland South has been greatly weakened since World War I, but it has never disappeared. Recent historians of the early South have emphasized the area’s social instability. A high mortality rate during the first century of settlement, coupled with a high demand for agricultural workers...

  33. Vernacular Architecture (Upland South)
    (pp. 197-202)

    Architecturally, the Upland South can be defined as the area lying between the Ohio River on the north, the Blue Ridge and Smoky Mountains on the east, the northern portions of the Gulf states on the south, and the Ozark Mountains on the west. Since the early 20th century, this region has been depicted as a repository of antiquated cultural forms. Students of architecture have tended to concentrate on exotic or archaic rural building practices, for example, log construction, dogtrot- and saddlebag-plan houses, and double-crib barns, and to neglect consideration of more ordinary vernacular buildings and particularly the patterns of...

  34. Adams, Wayman Elbridge (1883–1959) PAINTER, TEACHER, LITHOGRAPHER
    (pp. 203-205)

    The son of an amateur artist/horse breeder, Wayman Elbridge Adams was born in 1883 in Muncie, Ind. He was encouraged in the pursuit of art by his father, and he won his first prize at the age of 12. Adams studied under William J. Forsyth at the John Herron Institute of Art in Indianapolis from 1904 to 1909. He continued his training in Florence, Italy, under William Merritt Chase in 1910, followed by studies under Robert Henri in Spain in 1912. During his time in Spain, Adams studied paintings by Diego Velázquez, as well as sketching everyday scenes of the...

  35. Aid, George Charles (1872–1938) PAINTER
    (pp. 205-206)

    François Ayd emigrated from Alsace, France, in 1831, via the port of New Orleans. His grandson George Charles Aid was born in 1872 in Quincy, Ill. Aid grew up in St. Louis where he attended the School of Fine Art and became a newspaper illustrator. In 1899 Aid’s precocious drawing, etching, and painting earned him a scholarship for further training in Paris. There he was accepted as vrai français—because of his language fluency and personal charm, Aid was well regarded in French art circles, as well as in the expatriate American community.

    His skill in mimicking the artistic styles...

  36. Aked, Aleen (1907–2003) PAINTER
    (pp. 206-208)

    British-born Aleen Aked immigrated to Canada with her parents in 1910. By 1918 the family had moved to Toronto, and at the age of 14 Aked won a scholarship to study with Arthur Lismer at Ontario College of Art. In the 1920s she received instruction at the college with other members of the famed Canadian “group of seven”: Frederick Horsman Varley, Alexander Young Jackson, James Edward Hervey MacDonald, George Agnew Reid, John William Beatty, and Yvonne McKague. The technique of sculpting was taught by Sydney March and Emmanuel Hahn, and Aked graduated with honors in 1928.

    An avid golfer, she...

    (pp. 208-210)

    Born in Bottrop in the Ruhr River coalmining region in North Rhine–West-phalia (Germany), painter-theorist Josef Albers became one of the most influential artist-teachers of the 20th century. He emphasized excellent craftsmanship as the basis for art, tracing this appreciation to his family lineage—his father was a craftsman and his mother was the daughter of a blacksmith. Albers’s works manifest a highly disciplined intellectual inclination devoid of emotional attachment. He studied in Berlin, Essen, and Munich. His drawings made during his art training in Berlin at the Königliche Kunstschule from 1915 to 1918 reveal his natural tendency toward minimalism,...

  38. Albrizio, Conrad Alfred (1894–1973) PAINTER
    (pp. 210-211)

    The son of Italian immigrants, Conrad Alfred Albrizio was born in New York City on 20 October 1894. Two of his brothers, Humbert and Joseph, became sculptors. He studied architecture and began working in 1919 as an architectural draftsman on the Hibernia Bank Building in downtown New Orleans. Inspired by the southern landscape, he took up painting. He studied at the Art Students League of New York and the Fontainebleau School of Art in France and had his first exhibition in 1925 at the Arts and Craft Club of New Orleans.

    Albrizio, who traveled extensively throughout Italy and Europe, explored...

  39. Alférez, Enrique (1901–1999) SCULPTOR
    (pp. 211-213)

    Enrique Alférez was born in 1901 to a Mexican father who was a sculptor from Zacatecas, the town that was the site of the bloodiest battle during the campaign to overthrow Mexican president Victoriano Huerta. There in 1914 Pancho Villa’s División del Norte defeated General Luis Medina Barrón. Alférez, who reportedly was captured and given the choice of fighting with Pancho Villa’s troops or execution, joined Villa’s revolutionary army, for which he subsequently became a mapmaker. In 1993 Alférez would appear in a PBS documentary for an American Experience program titled “The Hunt for Pancho Villa.”

    Alférez, who attended El...

  40. Allen, Jere Hardy (b. 1944) PAINTER
    (pp. 213-214)

    Jere Hardy Allen, an internationally known figurative painter who has been called “the Mississippi Rembrandt,” was born on 15 August 1944 in Selma, Ala. Early on, inspired by the landscape and wildlife paintings of his great-grandmother Annie Bell Rives Hardy, he decided he too wanted to be an artist and began drawing constantly. He was often a challenge to his teachers—his fifth-grade teacher scolded him in front of his classmates for drawing a nude during school. Undaunted, Allen kept drawing and completed high school, and then, after working at a television station in Montgomery and joining the U.S. Marine...

  41. Allston, Washington (1779–1843) PAINTER
    (pp. 214-215)

    Washington Allston was born at Brookgreen Plantation on the Waccamaw River near Georgetown, S.C., to Capt. William Allston and his wife, Rachel Moore Allston. After his father’s death in 1781, the artist’s mother married Henry C. Flagg of Newport, R.I., an acquaintance through the network of South Carolinians who summered there. Young Allston’s acquired relations in the extended Flagg-Channing-Dana family became his closest associates for the rest of his life.

    Upon graduation from Harvard University in 1800, Allston spent the following year in Charleston. In 1801 he traveled to London in the company of miniaturist Edward Greene Malbone, a friend...

  42. Amans, Jacques Guillaume Lucien (1801–1888) PAINTER
    (pp. 216-218)

    Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans was born in Maastricht, Netherlands, in 1801. Although the facts of his art education are unknown, Amans probably studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris since he exhibited in the Salon from 1831 through 1837.

    One of the most accomplished artists in New Orleans from the mid-1830s through the mid-1850s, Amans is believed to have traveled to New Orleans at the suggestion of French portrait painter Jean- Joseph Vaudechamp, with whom he sailed in 1836 and 1837. Both painters exhibited at the same Paris salons, and in 1837 they occupied studios in the same block...

  43. Amisano, Joseph (1917–2008) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 218-219)

    Born in New York in 1917, Joseph Amisano became a leading designer of modern architecture in the South. He received his architecture degree from Pratt Institute in New York in 1940 and was a Fourth Year Design Medalist from that institution. Amisano won a Prix de Rome in 1950. In 1978 he was elected to the National Academy of Design as an associate member. Before joining the Atlanta firm of Toombs, Amisano, and Wells in 1954 he was associated with the firm of Harrison, Foulhoux, and Abramovitz in New York and in the Canal Zone. Later he joined the New...

  44. Anderson, Walter Inglis (1903–1965) ARTIST
    (pp. 219-220)

    Walter Anderson was born in New Orleans on 29 September 1903, the second son of George Walter Anderson, a grain merchant, and Annette McConnell Anderson, an artist, who gave her son a love of art, music, and literature. He grew up valuing the importance of art in everyday life and developed what would become a lifelong interest in mythology. He attended grade school in New Orleans, went to boarding school in New York, was later trained at the Parsons Institute of Design in New York (1922–23) and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1924–28), and received a...

  45. Andrews, Benny (1930–2006) ARTIST
    (pp. 220-223)

    One of 10 children, Benny Andrews was born on 13 November 1930 in Plain-view, Ga. His father, George Andrews, was a farmer and a self-taught artist who was known as the “Dot Man.” His mother, Viola Perryman Andrews, encouraged all of her children to write and draw daily. James Orr, his paternal grandfather, was the son of a prominent white plantation owner, and his paternal grandmother, Jessie Rose Lee Wildcat Tennessee, was, like his maternal grandparents, John and Allison Perryman, of mixed race—African American and Native American.

    Growing up in rural, segregated Georgia during the Great Depression and war...

  46. Arnold, Edward Everard (ca. 1816/1824–1866) PAINTER
    (pp. 223-224)

    A native of the town of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, Edward Everard Arnold arrived in New Orleans sometime between 1846 and 1850 and remained in the city until his death in 1866. Like many artists-craftsmen of the era, he divided his time as a sign painter, lithographer, genre and history painter, portraitist, and marine painter. Arnold probably learned the lithography trade as an apprentice in Germany, but he appears to have been a self-taught painter. Today, he is best known for the ship portraits that he painted most likely for New Orleans commission merchants, cotton factors, and masters of visiting...

  47. Arnold, John James Trumbull (1812–ca. 1865) PORTRAIT AND MINIATURE PAINTER
    (pp. 224-225)

    Among the itinerant artists still working at mid-19th century, John James Trumbull Arnold was exceptional in that he promoted himself as a “Professor of Penmanship” as well as a portrait and miniature painter. The fine linear skills associated with pen and ink are reflected in the clean, simple outlines of his figures, and they also lend a touch of elegance to his distinctive style. The hallmarks of Arnold’s work include soft gray-brown shading around the eyes, minutely painted eyelashes, and simple arched eyebrows. Arnold painted his sitters with minimal modeling. The flat, two-dimensional rendering of the hands, set in a...

  48. Audubon, John James (1785–1851) PAINTER
    (pp. 225-226)

    John James Audubon was a self-taught artist whose work art historians virtually ignored until the middle of the 20th century. Because Audubon claimed that he had “studied drawing for a short time while in youth under good masters”—he once claimed an early relationship with no less a master than Jacques-Louis David—his paintings are not often considered folk art. However, this claim was probably an attempt to establish an artistic pedigree after the fact. Theodore Stebbins wrote that Audubon may have “only admired [David] from a distance,” and biographer Richard Rhodes declared that Audubon maintained this fiction to “pad...

  49. Baggett, William Carter (b. 1946) PAINTER, PRINTMAKER, MURALIST
    (pp. 226-227)

    Born on 12 January 1946 in Montgomery, Ala., William Carter Baggett grew up and attended public schools in Nashville, Tenn., before earning two degrees in art from Auburn University (B.F.A., 1968, M.F.A., 1973). He taught in art and design programs at the University of Mississippi (1973–76), Auburn University (1976–86), and the University of Southern Mississippi (1986–2010) prior to retiring and returning to his studio endeavors on a full-time basis.

    Baggett worked primarily in watercolors and printmaking in the 1970s and, with many of his early works inspired by William Faulkner’s real and imaginary counties, Lafayette and Yoknapatawpha,...

  50. Barthé, James Richmond (Ray) (1901–1989) ARTIST
    (pp. 227-229)

    A sculptor often associated with the later Harlem Renaissance, Richmond Barthé focused on the human form and on capturing both everyday scenes and iconic members of the African American community. His sculptures are often noted for their sense of fluid motion and sensuality, and his sensitive interpretations brought him international acclaim.

    James Richmond Barthé was born in Bay St. Louis on 28 January 1901. His father died soon after; his mother, Marie Clementine Robateau, supported her family by sewing. While at work she often gave paper and pencil to the toddler to occupy him. Robateau raised her son as a...

  51. Bartlett, James W. (Bo), III (b. 1955) PAINTER
    (pp. 229-230)

    Bo Bartlett, a contemporary realist painter, was born James W. Bartlett III in Columbus, Ga., in 1955. He began his art career with private studies in Florence, Italy, and with Ben F. Long. In 1975 Bartlett moved to Philadelphia to attend the University of the Arts. From 1976 to 1981 he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where his instructors included Ben Kamihira, Morris Blackburn, and Sidney Goodman. Bartlett enriched his education with anatomy studies at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine and later earned a certificate in filmmaking from New York University.

    Early in his career,...

  52. Bartram, William (1739–1823) WRITER, NATURALIST, ILLUSTRATOR
    (pp. 230-232)

    American naturalist William Bartram is best known for his comprehensive accounts of the southern landscape and its environs and people in his narrative Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws: Containing an Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions; Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians (the shorter title is simply Bartram’s Travels). Bartram and his twin sister, Elizabeth, were born to Quaker parents, John and Ann Bartram, in Kingsessing, near Philadelphia, on...

  53. Bearden, Romare (1914–1988) PAINTER
    (pp. 232-234)

    Born 2 September 1914 in Charlotte, N.C., Romare Bearden attended public schools in New York and Pittsburgh but returned south to spend summers with his great-grandparents in Mecklenburg County, N.C. He received a B.S. degree in mathematics from New York University in 1935, studied at the Art Students League in New York (1936–37), worked on advanced mathematics at Columbia University (1943), served in the U.S. Army (1942–45), and went to Paris after the war to study philosophy and art at the Sorbonne (1951). Bearden worked for the New York Department of Social Services periodically in the late 1930s...

  54. Beckwith, William Norwood (b. 1952) SCULPTOR
    (pp. 234-235)

    William Norwood (Bill) Beckwith was born in Greenville, Miss., in 1952 and educated in the public schools of that city, long known as an arts mecca of the state because of its many writers and artists, as well as the influence of planter, attorney, poet, and arts patron William Alexander Percy. As a memorial for his father, U.S. senator LeRoy Percy, Will Percy commissioned Patriot, a bronze statue of a medieval knight in armor, created in 1930 by Melvina Hoffman, an internationally acclaimed sculptor who had studied with Auguste Rodin in Paris. Percy later sent his protégé Leon Z. Koury,...

    (pp. 235-239)

    Thomas Hart Benton was perhaps the best-known artist in America in the 1930s. Reflecting this stature, he was the first artist to be featured on the cover of Time magazine (1934). Born in Neosho, Mo., he later maintained his home and studio in Kansas City (1935–75). Though he is commonly associated with the Midwest and labeled a “regionalist” artist, his art reflects a much larger vision of America and of the American people. Benton’s art was often inspired by American history and the spirit of the places he lived—including Washington, D.C. (1897–1904), Chicago (1907–8), Paris (1908–...

  56. Bernard, François (1812–1875) PAINTER
    (pp. 239-240)

    Born in Nîmes, France, François Bernard studied with Paul Delaroche, a French academic artist who specialized in large historical tableaux. Delaroche, one of the most popular teachers of his time, trained with French masters Claude-Henri Watelet and Baron Antoine-Jean Gros. Additional encouragement came from Théodore Géricault, who had studied at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Bernard’s classical instruction is evident in his work, particularly his portraiture, which is characterized by a smooth finish and attention to fine detail, notably in lace and jewelry. He found great appreciation for his art throughout Louisiana, a fact that is evident...

  57. Binford, Julien (1908–1997) PAINTER AND SCULPTOR
    (pp. 240-242)

    A much-acclaimed artist of Virginia, Julien Binford was born in Powhatan in 1908, the son of parents who traced their ancestry in America back many generations. At the age of 15 he moved with his family to Atlanta and eventually entered the premedical program at Emory University. He decided to become an artist and found encouragement from Roland McKinney, the newly appointed director of the High Museum of Art. On McKinney’s recommendation, Binford went to Chicago and enrolled in classes at the Art Institute of Chicago under the Russian artist and stage designer Boris Anisfeld, who was known as an...

  58. Bottomley, William Lawrence (1883–1951) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 242-244)

    William Lawrence Bottomley made unique contributions to the practice of country house architecture in the South. Through the Georgian Revival houses he designed and through the publication of Great Georgian Houses of America, he exerted a distinctive and marked influence on country house design. Bottomley designed houses for clients in many southern states, including North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Maryland, and West Virginia, but his reputation was made through his commissioned houses for clients in Virginia.

    Bottomley was born on 22 February 1883 in New York City. He received his B.S. degree in architecture from Columbia University in...

  59. Bourgeois, Douglas (b. 1951) PAINTER
    (pp. 244-245)

    Douglas Bourgeois’s art is an art of reverie and longing; it evokes the French aesthetic posture of artists from Poussin to Chardin to Matisse—a posture of painting-as-Eden, of painting as interminable envie. But Bourgeois’s Eden is distinctly southern, and, moreover, it is the Catholic world of southern Louisiana.

    Born in 1951 in Gonzales, La., between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Bourgeois earned a B.F.A. degree from Louisiana State University and received several national fellowship grants during the 1980s and 1990s. He has shown his paintings regularly since 1978, including exhibitions at New Orleans’s Arthur Roger Gallery and Galerie Simonne...

  60. Branson, Enoch Lloyd (1853–1925) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 245-246)

    Enoch Lloyd Branson was born near Maynardville, Union County, Tenn., on 8 August 1853 to Enoch Branson and Altamira Gentry Branson. Under the patronage of John M. Boyd of Knoxville, Branson entered the University of Tennessee in 1870 and then pursued further study at the National Academy of Design in 1873. In 1875 he was awarded first prize in the antique school of drawing. With funds from that prize, Branson made a study tour of Europe in 1875–76. He first began to exhibit his historical genre paintings at the Paris Exposition of 1878, at the time of his second...

  61. Brenner, Carl Christian (1838–1888) PAINTER
    (pp. 246-247)

    Carl Christian Brenner was born in Lauterecken, in Bavaria, Germany, on 10 August 1838. Brenner and his family were part of that influx of German craftsmen, artisans, merchants, and musicians who so greatly enhanced the cultural profiles of Cincinnati, Louisville, and New Orleans in the years following the European revolutions of 1848. A very young Brenner is reported to have studied with Phillip Froelig at the Royal Academy in Munich in 1854.

    Carl’s father, Frederick, brought his family to America with the intention of opening a household paint and supply shop offering glazier services, a skill he demanded his son...

  62. Brown, Roger (1941–1997) PAINTER
    (pp. 247-249)

    Although he is best known as a member of the Chicago Imagists, artist Roger Brown’s childhood in Alabama left a lasting imprint on his work throughout his life. Brown was born in Hamilton, Ala., and his family soon relocated to Opelika. As a young man, he drew all of the time, and his parents encouraged his creativity. However, his family wanted him to become a preacher, and he enrolled in Bible school at David Lipscomb College in Nashville. While there, he decided to discontinue these studies and to change his life’s course. Brown moved to Chicago in 1962 and attended...

  63. Buck, William Henry (1840–1888) PAINTER
    (pp. 249-250)

    William Henry Buck, born in 1840 in Tromsø, Norway, immigrated to Boston, where he first studied painting. About 1860 Buck moved to New Orleans, where he continued his studies with painters Ernest Ciceri, Richard Clague, Andres Molinary, and sculptor-painter Achille Perelli. Upon his arrival in New Orleans, Buck took a position in the cotton brokerage business, and over the next 20 years he worked his way from clerk to commission merchant, cotton weigher, and cotton broker.

    After 20 years in the cotton business, Buck turned to painting full time in 1880. He traveled throughout the state on expeditions, especially southwest...

  64. Bulman, Orville Cornelius Loraine (1904–1978) PAINTER
    (pp. 250-251)

    Orville Bulman believed that “being an artist not only opens doors, but minds as well.” In his early years he dreamed of becoming a painter, but he was expected eventually to run his father’s successful Grand Rapids, Mich., manufacturing business. Devoting himself to the company in the 1920s and 1930s, he also exhibited at New York’s Society of Independent Artists in 1937, and around 1948 he showed his work with the Woodstock Art Colony. Although he was influenced by Arnold Blanch and Adolf Dehn there, Bulman is considered to be a self-taught artist.

    He began wintering in Palm Beach, Fla.,...

  65. Bultman, Anthony Frederick (Fritz) (1919–1985) PAINTER
    (pp. 252-254)

    Anthony Frederick (Fritz) Bultman’s art evolved in three of the most significant American art centers of the 20th century—New Orleans, Provincetown, Mass., and New York. His early academic studies in Germany and architectural training at the New Bauhaus in Chicago during the 1930s brought him into contact with Bauhaus principles as well as modern art and architecture. A prominent artist in postwar New York, Bultman was also a long-term resident and central figure, along with his wife, Jeanne, in the Provincetown art world.

    Bultman was born in New Orleans on 4 April 1919 to Pauline Bultman and A. Fred...

  66. Cameron, James (1817–1882) PAINTER
    (pp. 254-256)

    James Cameron lived in Chattanooga, Tenn., for less than 10 years, but he left behind a body of work that chronicled the people and landscape of eastern Tennessee before the Civil War. His biography is sketchy; he was born in Greenock, Scotland, in 1817. His family immigrated to Philadelphia about 1833. In his early twenties Cameron moved to Indianapolis seeking work as an artist in a smaller market. By 1847 he returned to Philadelphia, where he married artist Emma Alcock. The newlyweds traveled to Italy for an extended period; in 1848 Cameron listed himself as a citizen of Rome when...

  67. Catesby, Mark (1683–1749) PAINTER AND ILLUSTRATOR
    (pp. 256-257)

    Mark Catesby, an English naturalist and self-taught artist, traveled North America in order to document the South’s “birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects, and plants.” After exploring the fauna and flora along the James River between 1712 and 1719, Catesby returned to England to secure sponsorships from members of the Royal Society so that he could pursue a more comprehensive documentary project. Having secured the sponsorship of prominent backers, including the governor of colonial South Carolina, Catesby sailed to Charleston in 1722 and embarked upon four years of extensive outdoor sketching and note making. Painting from life whenever practical, he concentrated...

    (pp. 257-259)

    Born in Boston, James Wells Champney was the son of painter-illustrator Benjamin Champney, a cofounder of the Boston Art Club in 1855. Young Champney, called “Wells” by his family, would inherit his father’s drawing skills. After his mother’s death, he used his aunts and cousins as models. He studied drawing at the Lowell Institute; subsequently, in 1859, the 16-year-old lad was apprenticed to wood engraver Bricker & Russell. his preparation served Champney well, for it enhanced his drawing skills, his mastery of controlled line, and his understanding of chiaroscuro.

    Enlisting in the 45th Massachusetts Volunteers, Champney saw brief military service at...

  69. Chapman, Conrad Wise (1842–1910) PAINTER
    (pp. 259-260)

    Conrad Wise Chapman was born in 1842 in Washington, D.C., where his Virginia-born father, John Gadsby Chapman, painted murals in the Capitol. In 1848 the elder Chapman settled in Rome, Italy, where Conrad spent his youth. His early instruction in art was provided by his father. Fired with devotion to Virginia, young Chapman returned to America with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 and enlisted in the Confederate army. He prepared numerous sketches of war scenes, especially in Virginia and South Carolina. In 1863 and 1864 he was assigned to depict the batteries and forts at Charleston, S.C....

    (pp. 260-262)

    John Gadsby Chapman was born in Alexandria, Va., on 11 August 1808. His maternal grandfather was the proprietor of Gadsby’s Tavern, one of the most celebrated establishments in the Tidewater, and he is thought to have had some early instruction from two local artists, George Cooke and Charles Bird King. Following a period of study in Philadelphia, in 1828 the young Chapman made the requisite artistic pilgrimage to Rome, where he copied old masters and learned traditional drafting techniques until 1831. The classical American sculptor Horatio Greenough was among his sitters and became a lifelong friend.

    Upon his return to...

  71. Christenberry, William (b. 1936) ARTIST
    (pp. 262-265)

    The art of William Christenberry is rooted in the landscape of the Deep South, specifically in Hale County and Perry County, Ala., the region of the Black Belt that is central to the history of his family. For more than five decades, Christenberry has focused on that region and its people, in diverse media including painting, sculpture, photography, drawing, printmaking, and environmental installations, as well as in storytelling.

    One of three children, William Andrew Christenberry Jr. was born in 1936 in Tuscaloosa, Ala., to William Andrew Christenberry and Willard Smith Christenberry. Young Christenberry, who was educated in the Alabama public...

  72. Clague, Richard, Jr. (1821–1873) PAINTER
    (pp. 265-266)

    Artist Richard Clague Jr. was born in Paris, France, on 11 May 1821 to Justine de la Roche and Richard Clague Sr. Clague’s parents, both of whom were descendants of wealthy New Orleans families, also had living quarters in Paris and later returned to Louisiana. When Clague’s parents separated in 1835, Justine Clague left New Orleans with her three sons to live in Paris near Montmartre. In 1836 the 15-year-old Richard and his 14-year-old brother, Edouard, were sent to school in Geneva, Switzerland, to study with animal and landscape painter Jean-Charles Ferdinand Humbert. During Clague’s studies with Humbert, he developed...

  73. Clark, Eliot Candee (1883–1980) PAINTER
    (pp. 267-268)

    Eliot Candee Clark benefited greatly from being the son of an artist and from traveling as a child with his father’s circle of friends. Clark’s artistic education is directly linked to his proximity to successful American artists and his absorption of their working styles. As a mature and established artist, Clark was equally well known for his writings about art, his teaching, and his leadership in organizations founded to promote American art.

    Born in New York City on 27 March 1883, Clark was the son of noted landscape painter Walter Clark and his wife, Jennifer. Young Clark’s education included spending...

  74. Clark, Kate Freeman (1875–1957) PAINTER
    (pp. 268-269)

    In the early 1890s Kate Freeman Clark left her home in Holly Springs, Miss., and enrolled in drawing and painting courses at the Art Students League in New York, where she studied under John Henry Twachtman, Irving Ramsey Wiles, and William Merritt Chase. Initially Clark went to New York to attend the Gardner Institute, a finishing school, but her aptitude for drawing and painting impressed her mother enough to allow her to enter the Art Students League, where figure studies and still lifes dominated her artistic production under Chase’s tutelage.

    Enthralled with Chase’s masterful approach and Munich school manner, Clark...

  75. Cloar, Carroll (1913–1993) PAINTER
    (pp. 269-271)

    As a young boy growing up in Earle, Ark., Carroll Cloar remembered the regional stories and folktales that his parents and others told him. “I could actually remember how I visualized those things when I was told about them, and I painted that way,” Cloar later recalled. “I’ve tried to keep a child’s point of view, the simplicity, the wonder.”

    Cloar graduated from Southwestern College in Memphis, and after two years as a student at the Memphis Academy of Arts he journeyed to New York and enrolled in the Art Students League, studying under Harry Sternberg and Ernest Fiene. In...

  76. Cooke, George (1793–1849) PAINTER
    (pp. 271-273)

    George Cooke was born on 13 March 1793 in St. Mary’s County on the eastern shore of Maryland and baptized in the Episcopal faith at St. George’s Church, Chaptico. His earliest effort, a copy of a Gilbert Stuart portrait, came to the attention of Gen. John Mason of Leesburg, Va., who attempted to place him under the tutelage of the Peale family in Philadelphia. Rembrandt Peale’s fee could not be met, however, and Cooke remained largely self-taught. By 1812 Cooke had settled in Georgetown, District of Columbia, where he became a partner in a mercantile venture selling housewares and groceries....

  77. Cooper, Don (b. 1944) PAINTER
    (pp. 273-275)

    A native of Belton, Tex., Don Cooper moved to Georgia with his family as a small child. He was raised near the geographic center of the state, and he was deeply influenced by that physical environment, a fusion of the urbane, the industrial, and the utterly rural. Macon is the state’s largest city, and the nearby Milledgeville was once the state capital. It is, as the designation “Middle Georgia” implies, central in practically every way. Cooper attended public schools in Madison, Milledgeville, Haddock, and Gray before matriculating at the University of Georgia, where he earned a B.F.A. in 1966 and...

  78. Coulon, George David (1822–1904) PAINTER
    (pp. 275-277)

    At the time of his death, George David Coulon, who had painted in New Orleans for six decades, was referred to as “the Dean of Art Spirit in Louisiana.” Coulon was born in France on 14 November 1822 and immigrated to New Orleans with his family in 1833. Educated in New Orleans public schools, Coulon subsequently studied art with Toussaint François Bigot, François Fleischbein, Antoine Mondelli, and Julien Hudson, a free man of color.

    In his autobiographical notes, Coulon wrote that as a child he wished to become an artist and made “drawings and colored them with indigo, the juice...

  79. Couper, Josephine Sibley (1867–1957) PAINTER
    (pp. 277-278)

    A versatile and prolific painter who championed modernism, Josephine Sibley Couper was a leading figure in the Carolinas during the first half of the 20th century. For two decades a resident of Spartanburg, S.C., she was cofounder of its Arts and Crafts Club, predecessor to the city’s present art museum. Her presence at Tryon in the North Carolina mountains during the final decades of her long and productive career affirmed that colony’s important place in southern art.

    Josephine Sibley was the 15th child in a wealthy family of Augusta, Ga. At the age of 12 she first toured Europe, where...

  80. Crawford, Josephine Marien (1878–1952) PAINTER
    (pp. 278-280)

    Josephine Marien Crawford’s painting style is singular. Along with Paul Ninas, Crawford is credited with having introduced cubism to the city of New Orleans. Daniel Webster Whitney and Will Henry Stevens also painted in a cubistic style, but the work of each of these artists is distinguishable one from the other. Crawford’s near-monochromatic faceted works and her transitional paintings are immediately identifiable. Her painting skills developed late in life, with her earlier focus being on poetry. Born in New Orleans on 31 December 1878, Josephine was the middle child of seven children born to Charles Campbell Crawford and Louise Bienvenu...

  81. Cress, George Ayers (1921–2008) PAINTER
    (pp. 280-281)

    For over 55 years as a teacher, George Cress helped shape the art department at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), influencing several generations of artists in the city. As an artist, his lyrical abstract paintings reflect his continuing fascination with the landscape of his beloved eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia.

    Cress was born in 1921 in Anniston, Ala. He studied art with Lamar Dodd, Carl Holty, and Jean Charlot at the University of Georgia (B.F.A., 1942; M.F.A., 1949). From 1945 until 1951 Cress taught briefly at several different colleges, when he went to the University of Chattanooga (later...

  82. Cruise, Boyd (1909–1988) PAINTER
    (pp. 281-283)

    Best known today for his carefully detailed renderings of historical French Quarter scenes, Boyd Cruise was born on 20 October 1909 in Cains, Miss. His early childhood was spent in the small Louisiana town of Franklin and then in Crowley in the heart of Acadiana. In 1918 his family moved to nearby Lake Charles. While in high school Cruise worked as a window decorator at Muller’s Department Store, as well as acting in theater productions and creating stage sets for the Lake Charles Little Theater. His art studies began in September 1928 at the Arts and Crafts Club of New...

  83. Daingerfield, Elliott (1859–1932) PAINTER
    (pp. 283-284)

    Elliott Daingerfield was born in Harpers Ferry, Va., in 1859, but his family soon moved to Fayetteville, N.C., where his father served as commander of the Confederate arsenal. Daingerfield grew up rooted in the traditions of the South, yet his artistic training and professional advancement took place in the New York art world. In the South of his youth, shaped by the Civil War and Reconstruction, Daingerfield had only limited opportunities to study art, which included training in china painting and in commercial photography, and for a time he worked as a sign painter.

    At the age of 21, in...

  84. Dale, Ronald Guy (Ron) (b. 1949) POTTER, CLAY AND WOOD SCULPTOR
    (pp. 284-286)

    Ronald Guy (Ron) Dale was born on 26 January 1949 in Spruce Pine, N.C., and lived there for two and a half years before moving to Asheville with his parents and older brother (a singer songwriter who dabbles in clay). After graduation from high school and a turn in the U.S. Navy, he enrolled at the University of North Carolina at Asheville for two years (1973–75), before going to Vermont to finish a B.A. in art from Goddard College (1977) and then to Louisiana State University for an M.F.A. in ceramics (1979). He taught at the University of Mississippi...

  85. Delaney, Joseph (1904–1991) PAINTER
    (pp. 286-288)

    Joseph Delaney was born to the Rev. and Mrs. Samuel Delaney in Knoxville, Tenn., in 1904, the ninth of ten children and sixth of six boys. Samuel Delaney was a minister in the African American Episcopal Church, serving as a circuit rider in Harriman, Lafollette, and other small parishes near Knoxville before becoming the minister of Vine Avenue Methodist Church in Knoxville.

    Delaney began drawing—on religious cards—in his father’s church. After completing the ninth grade at Knoxville Colored High School, he left school and worked at odd jobs at the Cherokee Country Club and the Farragut Hotel. He...

  86. Dewing Woodward, Martha (1856–1950) PAINTER
    (pp. 288-289)

    At age 11 Martha Dewing Woodward vowed to never marry and instead focus on her art. She dropped her first name of Martha when she was in Europe because of the continental discrimination against female painters. As a result, she became known in biographical dictionaries as both “Dewing-Woodward” and “Dewing Woodward” and on occasion was erroneously referred to as “he.”

    Indefatigable in her artistry as well as in her extraordinarily active life, Dewing Woodward studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and in Europe. In Paris she experienced the tutelage of Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Claude Lefebvre, and the great...

  87. Dodd, Lamar (1909–1996) PAINTER
    (pp. 289-291)

    Lamar Dodd, one of the preeminent painters of Georgia, was born in Fairburn and received a five-year Certificate of Art and diploma from LaGrange High School in 1926. After a short period as a student in the School of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Dodd enrolled in the Art Students League of New York. He studied with Charles Bridgman and Boardman Robinson and privately with George Luks, who had achieved his reputation as a member of Robert Henri’s circle of urban realists. After a year back in LaGrange devoted entirely to painting, Dodd had his first solo exhibition...

  88. Dormon, Caroline (1888–1971) PAINTER, WRITER, NATURALIST
    (pp. 291-293)

    Born at Briarwood, her family’s summer home near Saline, La., Caroline Dormon dedicated her life to the close study and protection of nature. Dormon felt compelled to share what she called “the gift of the wild things” through numerous paintings, articles, books, photographs, gardens, and a national forest shaped by her hand.

    Dormon trained in fine art at Judson College in Marion, Ala., graduating in 1907, before returning to teach singing and drawing in Louisiana. Dormon spent most of her life in and around the hills and pine forests of north-central Louisiana. Here she developed her vast knowledge and appreciation...

  89. Douglas, Aaron (1898–1979) PAINTER
    (pp. 293-295)

    Aaron Douglas is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of African American art in the South, but his achievement is also part of the larger history of American art. Born in Topeka, Kans., Douglas graduated from the University of Nebraska School of Fine Arts in 1925. A short time later he moved to New York City, where he immediately came under the influence of Winold Reiss, who had done work based on a study of racial and folk types. Illustrations by both men appeared in Alain Locke’s pioneering study, The New Negro, which was...

  90. Drysdale, Alexander John (1870–1934) PAINTER
    (pp. 295-296)

    Alexander John Drysdale, who is known for his misty, tonalist Louisiana bayou scenes, spent his formative years in Marietta, Ga. He was born on 2 March 1870, the son of Rev. Alexander John Drysdale and Mary Davidson Drysdale. His father moved the family to New Orleans to accept a position as rector of Christ Church Cathedral on Canal Street at the corner of Dauphine. Young Alexander, who was 15 years old when he arrived in the city, received private tutoring in accounting from Professor Mehado and art lessons from Ida C. Haskell at the Southern Art Union. Drysdale later took...

  91. Dunlap, William Ralph (Bill) (b. 1944) PAINTER
    (pp. 296-298)

    William Ralph (Bill) Dunlap is a contemporary artist and educator as well as a curator, writer, and media commentator. A Mississippi native, he has long served as an advocate for the art and artists of the South and maintains studios in McLean, Va., Mathiston, Miss., and Coral Gables, Fla.

    Dunlap was born on 21 January 1944 in Houston, Miss. His parents came from families of old Webster County, Miss. His mother, Margaret Cooper Dunlap, was from Mathiston and Eupora; his father, Sam Coleman Dunlap Sr., was from Grady. After the death of his father in 1947 his mother moved the...

  92. Dureau, George (b. 1930) PAINTER, DRAFTSMAN, PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 298-300)

    George Dureau, who has received international attention for his drawings and photographs, was born on 28 December 1930 in New Orleans and spent his formative years in his native city. After completing studies at Louisiana State University in 1952, he studied at the Tulane University school of architecture. He began his career as a window dresser at the D. H. Holmes Department Store, where he was encouraged by Bunny Scherzer, a colleague in advertising, to concentrate on his art. Through the years Dureau has exhibited in numerous New Orleans venues, including the Tilden-Foley Gallery, Downtown Gallery, Galerie Simonne Stern, Galerie...

  93. Durieux, Caroline Spelman Wogan (1896–1989) PRINTMAKER, PAINTER, CARICATURIST
    (pp. 300-301)

    Caroline Spelman Wogan Durieux was born in New Orleans on 22 January 1896 and grew up on Esplanade Avenue. She made drawings as a child and kept a sketchbook, but her formal training in art began at the Newcomb College School of Art in 1912. There she studied drawing, perspective, design, and composition under Ellsworth Woodward and earned a bachelor of design degree in 1916, graduating with honors. She won the 1914 Neill Medal for excellence in watercolor painting. Continuing her education at Newcomb, she received a second bachelor’s degree in 1917. Durieux then studied art in the Vieux Carré...

  94. Earl, Ralph Eleaser Whiteside, Jr. (ca. 1785–1838) PAINTER
    (pp. 301-302)

    The successful career of painter Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl Jr. can be attributed largely to his lifelong association with Pres. Andrew Jackson. Son of Ralph Earl, who had begun his career as a self-taught artist and whose art retained naive qualities, Ralph E. W. Earl had initially taken lessons from his father before traveling to England in 1809. In London, young Earl studied for a year with Benjamin West and John Trumbull and then lived with relatives in Norwich before traveling to Paris in 1814. The following year he returned to the United States and began working as an itinerant...

  95. Eggleston, William (b. 1939) PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 302-304)

    Photographer William Eggleston, popularly known as the father of color photography, was born on 27 July 1939 in Memphis, Tenn. Raised on his family’s plantation in Tallahatchie County, Miss., Eggleston attended classes at Vanderbilt, Delta State, and the University of Mississippi. Although he never received a degree, Eggleston was drawn intensely to modern art, particularly abstract expressionism, during his studies. Eggleston began photographing by 1957 and was soon inspired by the vision of photographers Robert Frank and Henri Cartier-Bresson.

    Although his early work was traditional black-and-white photography, by the late 1960s Eggleston was working almost exclusively with color transparency film....

  96. Ellertson, Homer (1892–1935) PAINTER
    (pp. 304-305)

    An avant-garde painter and important figure in the Tryon Art Colony, Homer Ellertson was strongly influenced by cubism and used abstraction in depicting southern motifs. El Taarn, his art moderne residence and studio, was a magnet for connoisseurs and creative intellectuals. Ellertson was born in 1892 in River Falls, Wis., to parents of Norwegian background. He received a degree in art from the local normal school and continued his studies at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, N.Y., which then had a sizable Norwegian community. After Ellertson’s first year he won a scholarship to Paris. Among his teachers in France was Richard...

  97. Faulkner, John Wesley Thompson, III/Falkner, Maud Butler (1901–1963) PAINTER/(1871–1960) PAINTER
    (pp. 305-308)

    Writer-artist John Wesley Thompson Faulkner III was born to Murry Cuthbert Falkner and Maud Butler Falkner in Ripley, Miss. The spelling of John’s name changed in 1940 when he published his first novel, Dollar Cotton, a spoof on the Works Progress Administration (WPA) program and its effects on uneducated rural people. His publishers advised adding the “u” for name recognition with that of his older brother, William Faulkner. There is evidence, however, that John was already using the spelling with the “u” in his engineering records in the 1930s. Like William, who made drawings and art books, John came to...

  98. Faulkner, William (1897–1962) ARTIST AND AUTHOR
    (pp. 308-310)

    William Cuthbert Falkner was born 25 September 1897 in New Albany, Miss., the first of four sons of Murry Cuthbert Falkner and Maud Butler Falkner (William later added the “u” to the name). After financial problems resulted in the loss of his job with the railroad owned by his grandfather William Clark Falkner of Ripley, Murry moved his family to Oxford, where he operated a livery stable and then owned a hardware store before becoming the business manager of the University of Mississippi. Maud Falkner, a talented painter and a devotee of the literary and visual arts, taught her sons...

  99. Fink, Denman (1880–1956) PAINTER, ILLUSTRATOR, DESIGNER
    (pp. 310-311)

    Denman Fink left his native Pennsylvania to live in Haworth, N.J., in 1910. He studied at the Pittsburgh School of Design and Boston Museum of Art under the tutelage of American impressionist greats Edmund Charles Tarbell and Frank Weston Benson and later received instruction at the Art Students League in New York. At the age of 19 he was illustrating Harper’s and Scribner’s magazines. His paintings became nationally renowned, and Fink supplemented his income with other magazine, book, and advertisement illustrations—most notably for Cream of Wheat. Prestigious art halls in which he exhibited include the Pennsylvania Academy of the...

  100. Fleischbein, Franz (François Jacques) (1801–1868) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 311-312)

    Franz Joseph Fleischbein, better known in the United States as François Jacques, or simply François, was born in Godramstein, Bavaria, Germany. He is purported to have studied painting in Paris with Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, among others at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in Paris in the early 1820s. He married Marie Louise Tetu about 1828–32; they would later have four children. In 1833 Fleischbein and his family moved from France to New Orleans, where he remained until his death.

    Fleischbein was among the most successful portraitists in antebellum New Orleans, competing with Jacques Guillaume Lucien...

  101. Fraser, Charles (1782–1860) MINIATURE PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 312-313)

    During the antebellum period, Charleston was often referred to as the “Queen of the South,” an indication of her commercial as well as cultural position in the region. Lawyer, author, miniature portraitist, and landscape painter Charles Fraser was very much a mirror of the city’s accomplishments and aspirations. He was born in Charleston, S.C., the 14th child of Alexander Fraser and Mary Grimke, and lived there his entire life. He attended the College of Charleston in 1792 (at the time more like a grammar school) and was a lifetime supporter of the college, which he served as trustee, from 1817...

  102. Frerichs, William Charles Anthony (1829–1905) PAINTER
    (pp. 313-314)

    William Charles Anthony Frerichs was born in Ghent, Flanders, Belgium, but moved with his family to The Hague in the Netherlands while still a small child. He is reputed to have begun his studies at the Royal Academy in The Hague around 1835 with noted Dutch romantic landscape painter Andreas Schelfhout. Frerichs enrolled in the medical training program at the University of Leiden in 1843, but he returned to the Royal Academy three years later. Maj. August Davies, the American chargé d’affaires, saw Frerichs’s work at the Royal Academy and encouraged the artist to immigrate to the United States. He...

  103. Frymire, Jacob (b. between 1765 and 1777; d. 1822) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 314-316)

    Details about Jacob Frymire’s place and date of birth have not been found, but he is known to have been the son of Henry Frymire, who lived in Lancaster, Pa., during the 1760s and 1770s. Also not known is when and from whom he received his training as a painter. More details emerge from the 1790s, when his father moved to Hamilton Township, Franklin County, near Chambersburg in the Cumberland Valley.

    The next year, in May, at the same time his father bought 200 acres of farmland, Frymire began work as an itinerant painter in New Jersey, where he executed...

  104. Gaul, Gilbert William (1855–1919) PAINTER
    (pp. 316-319)

    Gilbert William Gaul, arguably the most important painter to reside in Tennessee during the late 19th century, was born in Jersey City, N.J., on 31 March 1855, the son of George W. and Cornelia A. Gilbert Gaul. He attended school in Newark and at the Claverack Military Academy in Columbia County, N.Y. In 1872, at the age of 17, he entered the prestigious National Academy of Design, the youngest student admitted to the academy up to that time, studying with Lemuel E. Wilmarth until 1876. He also studied with noted genre painter John George Brown at the newly opened Art...

  105. Goldthwaite, Anne Wilson (1869–1944) PAINTER
    (pp. 319-320)

    Born into a prominent Montgomery, Ala., family just after the Civil War, Anne Wilson Goldthwaite was well acquainted with the way of life, strong sense of family, culture, and environs of the South. She was also well aware of the difficulties endured by the region during Reconstruction; her father, a veteran Confederate artillery officer, moved his family to Texas in the hope of finding better economic circumstances.

    The Goldthwaite children lost both of their parents in the 1880s, and arrangements were made for them to return to Montgomery to live with their aunt, Molly Arrington. Surprisingly, considering the acceptable roles...

  106. Grafton, Robert Wadsworth (1876–1936) PAINTER
    (pp. 320-321)

    Robert Grafton is well known in the Midwest for his portraits of governors, presidents, and prominent locals, as well as for his numerous mural commissions for public buildings. He was a frequent visitor to New Orleans, where his impressionistic paintings of the French Quarter and the neighboring Old Basin Canal remain highly prized. When he began his annual winter painting expeditions in 1916, he was already an established artist and was readily accepted by the community of bohemian artists and writers who gathered in the historic Vieux Carré. He exhibited with the Art Association of New Orleans and was a...

  107. Gregory, Angela (1903–1990) SCULPTOR AND PAINTER
    (pp. 321-323)

    The first Louisiana woman sculptor to earn an international reputation, Angela Gregory was born in New Orleans on 18 October 1903 to William B. Gregory and Selena Elizabeth Brès Gregory. Angela’s father was a professor of engineering at Tulane University; her mother was an artist and graduate of Newcomb College. Brès, who was in the first pottery decoration class, reportedly sold the first piece of Newcomb pottery and the first souvenir postcard of New Orleans. From 1914 to 1921 young Gregory was educated at the Katherine Brès School, where her mother taught art. Obviously inspired by her mother’s instruction, Gregory...

  108. Griffith, Louis Oscar (1875–1956) PAINTER AND PRINTMAKER
    (pp. 323-324)

    Painter-printmaker Louis Oscar Griffith was born in Greencastle, Ind., on 10 October 1875. He began his art career as a youth working as a bellhop in Texas. Griffith made drawings and paintings late at night in a nook provided for him at the hotel. He first studied art seriously in Dallas with Frank Reaugh, continued his studies at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts in 1893, and then returned to study with Reaugh intermittently from 1896 through 1903. Subsequently, Griffith studied at the Art Institute of Chicago during the evenings in 1906. In 1908 he pursued further studies in...

  109. Guilford Limner (Dupue) (active 1820S) PAINTER
    (pp. 324-326)

    Although records show that a number of itinerant portraitists worked in North Carolina and Kentucky between the 1770s and the mid-19th century, scholars have not yet discovered the name of the artist known as the Guilford Limner. This artist, active during the 1820s in the vicinity of Greensboro, Guilford County, N.C., and also in Kentucky, signed none of the watercolor portraits attributed to him. The artist did not advertise services in local newspapers as did many itinerants, and since newspapers did not report the visits of female painters, it is unlikely that the Guilford Limner was a woman. Indeed, the...

  110. Gwathmey, Robert (1903–1988) PAINTER
    (pp. 326-328)

    Robert Gwathmey is a major exception to the assertion that the 20th-century renaissance in southern culture had little impact on the visual arts. His paintings reflected the same fascination with the South, its people, and its traditions that was found in the writing of novelists, poets, journalists, and historians of the Southern Renaissance. Like these writers, Gwathmey also felt the need to break free of the oppressiveness of the inherited southern culture and social order. Because his art often depicted sharecroppers and white planters in juxtaposition, it was first characterized as merely a southern version of the social realist painting...

  111. Halsey, William (1915–1998) ARTIST
    (pp. 328-329)

    Long considered the dean of 21st-century South Carolina art, William Halsey was given a chance to move to New York City at the height of abstract expressionism, but he decided instead to remain in Charleston, where he felt he could have greater impact. Educated in local schools, as a teenager Halsey became a youthful protégé of Charleston Renaissance artist Elizabeth O’Neill Verner. He attended the University of South Carolina for two years before going to the Boston Museum School, where he studied anatomy and fresco painting. In 1939 he married Sumter native and fellow artist Corrie McCallum and spent 18...

  112. Hamblett, Theora (1895–1977) PAINTER
    (pp. 329-330)

    Theora Hamblett was born on 15 January 1895 in the small community of Paris, Miss. Hamblett lived the first half of her life on her family’s modest farm in Paris. Her experience as a white woman growing up and living in the impoverished rural South was typical of her times, with the exception that she never married or had children. From 1915 to 1936 Hamblett taught school intermittently in the counties near her family home. In 1939 she moved to the nearby town of Oxford, where she supported herself as a professional seamstress and converted her home to a boardinghouse....

  113. Heade, Martin Johnson (1819–1904) PAINTER
    (pp. 330-331)

    Martin Johnson Heade was fortunate that his father, a successful lumber dealer and farmer, funded his son’s early art study with Edward Hicks, sometime around 1837. Heade met Hicks’s brother Thomas, who may have further influenced the young artist. Additionally, Heade’s father bore the expense of Martin’s study in Italy in 1838, as well as trips to England and France.

    From 1840 to the late 1850s Heade was a portrait, allegorical, and genre painter, during which time he changed the spelling of his name from Heed to Heade. He traveled in the South from late 1857 to April 1858 in...

  114. Healy, George Peter Alexander (1813–1894) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 331-333)

    George Peter Alexander Healy was born in Boston to William Healy, a sea captain, and his wife, Mary Hicks. After his father’s death he opened a portrait studio in Boston at the age of 18, where he attracted the patronage of Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis. With his initial earnings he traveled abroad for further study, working in Paris from 1834 to 1836 with Thomas Couture and Baron Antoine-Jean Gros. Healy was in London from 1838 to 1839, where he became an associate of the Royal Academy and married Louisa Phipps. He returned to Paris in 1840 and became a favorite...

  115. Heldner, Knute (1877–1952) PAINTER
    (pp. 333-335)

    The life and career of Knute Heldner reflect the range and complex backgrounds of the artists who were increasingly active in the American South during the 20th century. Sven August Knut Heldner was born in 1877 in Vederslöv Småland, Sweden. His father was a farmer who encouraged his son’s artistic interests, including his early training in drawing and wood carving at Karlskrona Technical School and the National Royal Academy of Stockholm. Young Knute was a cadet in the Swedish Royal Navy and later served as a cabin boy. He worked his way to America around 1902 and, attracted by its...

  116. Hesselius, John (ca. 1726–1778) PAINTER
    (pp. 335-336)

    Around 1711 Gustavus Hesselius and his wife, Lydia, were among a large number of Swedes who settled in the Christiana-Wilmington area of Delaware. Others in the family went first to Pennsylvania. Gustavus moved to St. George’s County, Md., at an undetermined date and sold his land there in 1726. John Hesselius, his son, was probably born that year, presumably in Philadelphia, where his parents had moved and would live until their deaths.

    John’s father painted portraits in Maryland and Pennsylvania—and possibly a few in Virginia, since one work from that colony is attributed to his hand. In Philadelphia, Gustavus...

  117. Highwaymen
    (pp. 336-337)

    The story of the Highwaymen is an unlikely one. This group of young African American artists living near Fort Pierce, Fla., during the early years of the civil rights movement rose above existing societal expectations and produced a large body of oil paintings that document the mid-20th-century landscape of the Sunshine State. For most of their careers, the artists worked anonymously, remaining unrecognized and uncelebrated until they were given the name “Highwaymen” in a magazine article in 1994, some 30 years after the beginning of their loose association.

    Alfred Hair, who had begun painting on his own in 1955, enlisted...

  118. Hill, Harriet “Hattie” Hutchcraft (1847–1921) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 337-338)

    Harriet Amanda Hutchcraft was born at Stony Point, Bourbon County, Ky., to James and Eliza Williams Hutchcraft. After studying at Stony Point School she attended Daughter’s College, Harrodsburg, Ky. By November 1865 she had graduated, married William A. Hill, and been certified to teach first grade in Danville, Ill. She lived in Danville until 1870, when William died and she returned to Kentucky. For the next eight years she filled various teaching positions in Paris and Georgetown, Ky.

    In June 1878 Hattie Hill and her sister Mattie sailed for Europe to visit the Great Exposition in Paris. Until that time...

  119. Hubard, William James (1807–1862) SILHOUETTIST AND PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 338-340)

    William James Hubard was born in Whitchurch, Shropshire, England, to William J. and Jane Hubard. The artist’s father was a modest provider who apprenticed his son at an early age. When young Hubard began to exhibit his extraordinary talent in cutting silhouettes, Smith, a neighbor whose full name is unknown, offered to undertake his management. Taking Hubard under his wing in 1824, Smith started the lad on a cross-country tour as a member of his Papryotomia, an exhibition that conflated a musical, Panharmonicum, with a demonstration of cutting profile portraits. While they were in Ramsgate, Hubard and Smith attracted the...

  120. Hudson, Julien (ca. 1811–1844) PAINTER
    (pp. 340-341)

    Most likely the son of London-born ship chandler and ironmonger John Thomas Hudson and Suzanne Désirée Marcos, a free quadroon, Julien Hudson is thought to have been a free man of color. However, he is not listed in the 1838 New Orleans City Directory as “f.m.c.,” as was the custom. His racial identity has been a matter of intense scrutiny for many years. The date of his birth is a matter of contention as well, but it was likely 9 January 1811. Hudson’s father apparently did not live with the family after about 1820, but his mother maintained a comfortable...

  121. Hull, Marie Atkinson (1890–1980) PAINTER
    (pp. 341-343)

    Coming from an old Mississippi family, Marie Atkinson Hull maintained a deep appreciation for strong ties to the South. She was born Marie Atkinson in the rural community of Summit, 80 miles south of Jackson. Her initial interest in the arts was music. Upon her graduation from Belhaven College with a degree in music, she taught piano and played the organ for several local churches.

    A year later, Atkinson began to study drawing and painting with Jackson’s only academically trained artist at the time, Aileen Phillips. With the encouragement of her teacher, Atkinson pursued a formal art education at the...

  122. Imes, Vinton Birney, III (b. 1951) PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 343-344)

    Vinton Birney Imes III is a photographer whose endeavors include commercial and studio photography and photojournalism. He is a self-taught artist who depicts the people, places, and landscapes of rural Mississippi. Museum collections in the United States and France contain his photographs. From coast to coast, galleries and museums have exhibited his pictures. His work has appeared alongside the finest of American photographers, including Walker Evans, Margaret Bourke-White, Clarence John Laughlin, and Robert Frank.

    Mississippi-born writer Richard Ford introduced Imes’s Juke Joint, a visual chronicle of African American taverns in the Mississippi Delta, by saying his photographs evoke a “thrilling...

  123. Johns, Jasper (b. 1930) ARTIST
    (pp. 344-347)

    Jasper Johns was born in Augusta, Ga., on 15 May 1930, the only child of William Jasper Johns and Jeannette Riley Johns, who lived in nearby Allendale, S.C. Following his parents’ divorce in 1933, he lived in Allendale with his grandparents until his grandfather died in 1939. Afterward, he lived with his mother and aunts in homes in Columbia, Lake Murray, and Sumter, S.C. Johns described his childhood as “entirely Southern, small-town, unsophisticated, a middle-class background in the Depression years of the thirties.”

    Johns studied at the University of South Carolina for three semesters and then moved to New York...

  124. Johnson, Joshua (b. ca. 1762; d. unknown) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 347-348)

    Joshua Johnson was born in Baltimore County, Md., about 1762, to an unknown slave woman owned by William Wheeler Sr. Joshua’s white father, George Johnson, about whom very little is known, purchased the boy from Wheeler on 6 October 1764 for £25 current money of Maryland. On 15 July 1782 George Johnson manumitted his son, who was in the process of completing his apprenticeship to Baltimore blacksmith William Forepaugh.

    Nothing is known of Joshua Johnson’s activities in the years between his manumission and the appearance of his name in the first Baltimore City Directory, published in 1796. In 1798 Johnson...

  125. Johnson, William Henry (1901–1970) PAINTER
    (pp. 348-349)

    William Henry Johnson was a prolific artist whose most important paintings, drawings, and prints concentrated on the history and culture of African Americans in the United States, especially in the South. Johnson was born in Florence, S.C., the oldest of four children (he had two sisters and a brother). His mother was part Sioux Indian and African American, and his father was white. His name was taken from a stepfather, William Johnson, a sharecropper who became infirm while William Henry was still a boy. The young Johnson left school to work and help support his family. His teacher recalled that...

  126. Johnston, Frances Benjamin (1864–1952) PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 349-351)

    A native of Grafton, W.Va., Frances Benjamin Johnston studied art in Paris and at the Art Students League in New York. She became dissatisfied with the state of academic American art, however, and turned to newspaper illustration. She sensed the potential of photography in journalism, believing that it was “the more accurate medium.” Johnston acquired a camera and studied under the direction of Thomas William Smillie, who was then in charge of the Division of Photography at the Smithsonian Institution.

    Johnston’s first essays focused on political events in the capital. She also photographed the Kohinoor coal mines of Pennsylvania and...

  127. Johnston, Henrietta Dering (ca. 1674–1729) PAINTER
    (pp. 351-352)

    Henrietta Johnston was the first known pastellist and professional female artist to work in the American colonies. She was born Henrietta de Beaulieu in France to French Huguenots Cézar de Beaulieu and his wife, Susannah. Cézar de Beaulieu was a Calvinist pastor who fled to England from Quentin, France (near Saint-Brieuc), about 1685. Although the sophistication of her pastel drawings suggests that she may have had some formal training, nothing is known of Johnston’s education. Her work has been compared to the work of Irish-born artists Edmund Ashfield and Edward Luttrell, either of whom may have taught or influenced her....

  128. Jones, Euine Fay (1921–2004) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 352-353)

    World-renowned architect E. Fay Jones gained early recognition for designing Thorncrown Chapel in Eureka Springs, Ark. The American Institute of Architects (aia) voted the chapel as one of the top five buildings designed by an American architect in the 20th century.

    Jones, named Euine Fay Jones Jr., was born of Welsh parents in Pine Bluff, Ark., on 31 January 1921. As a teenager he saw a film on architect Frank Lloyd Wright, after which he decided to pursue the profession. Since the University of Arkansas had no architecture program, Jones enrolled in its School of Engineering, studying there for two...

  129. Jones, Frank (ca. 1900–1969) DRAFTSMAN
    (pp. 353-354)

    Frank Jones was born around 1900 in Clarksville, Tex., a descendant of slaves whom early Anglo settlers brought to Texas from other regions of the American South to labor on cotton plantations. Abandoned by his mother as a small child, Jones was reared primarily by an aunt. He received no formal education and never learned to read or write. Jones did farm labor and yard work, occasionally traveling to nearby towns to pick up odd jobs.

    As a child, Jones was told that he was born with a veil over his left eye and that this veil would enable him...

  130. Jouett, Matthew Harris (1788–1827) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 354-356)

    Matthew Harris Jouett was born in Harrodsburg, Ky., to Jack and Sally Robards Jouett. His father was a local hero for having alerted Gov. Thomas Jefferson to Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton’s impending raid on Charlottesville, Va., during the American Revolution. Young Jouett studied law at Transylvania University in Lexington from 1804 to 1808 with George Bibb; upon his graduation, he married Margaret Henderson Allen, on 25 May 1812. Jouett enlisted in the Third Mounted Regiment, Kentucky Volunteers, War of 1812, and assumed the responsibility for replacing missing payroll funds of $6,000 lost in the battle of River Raisin, always noted...

  131. Kemmelmeyer, Frederick (ca. 1755–ca. 1821) PAINTER
    (pp. 356-357)

    A self-taught artist, Frederick Kemmelmeyer was born in Germany and came to America sometime in the last quarter of the 18th century. He advertised his services in Baltimore in the Maryland Gazette through the years 1788 to 1803 as evening drawing school instructor, limner, sign painter, portrait miniaturist, and portrait painter. Kemmelmeyer also painted military insignia and transparencies used in celebrations, decorated cornices for beds and windows, and gilded mirror and picture frames. He is believed to have died in Shepherdstown, W.Va., in 1821.

    The themes of Kemmelmeyer’s best-known works are historical and military subjects, especially his portraits and signs...

  132. Kinsey, Alberta (1875–1952) PAINTER
    (pp. 357-359)

    At the time of her death, Alberta Kinsey was referred to as “Miss Artist of the Vieux Carré.” A native of West Milton, Ohio, Kinsey was born in 1875. She studied at the Cincinnati Art Academy and the Chicago Art School and later became a member of the Women’s Art Club in Cincinnati. Kinsey was an instructor of art at Lebanon University in Lebanon, Ohio, a school to train teachers. When the university closed its doors in 1917, Kinsey traveled to New Orleans to attend the Newcomb College School of Art and become a painter of flowers. She abandoned that...

  133. Koch, Richard (1889–1971) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNER
    (pp. 359-360)

    During a 55-year career, Richard Koch established a practice that was diverse in its approaches to design and pioneering in its efforts to preserve and adapt the unique architectural heritage of the South. His knowledge of various styles was seen clearly in his reinterpretation of early 19th-century Louisiana building forms. His fusion of then-current ideas of modern design with traditional forms resulted in his being awarded the silver medal of the Architectural League of New York in 1938.

    Koch was born in New Orleans on 9 June 1889, the son of Anna Frotscher and Julius Koch, an architect-builder from Germany....

  134. Kohlmeyer, Ida Rittenberg (1912–1997) PAINTER, SCULPTOR, PRINTMAKER, TEACHER
    (pp. 360-363)

    Ida Rittenberg Kohlmeyer was deeply rooted in the culture of her native city, New Orleans. She was born in 1912, one of four children, to Joseph and Rebecca Rittenberg, immigrants from Bialystok, Poland. When she was four, her family moved to a home on Rosa Park Boulevard in Uptown New Orleans, near St. Charles Avenue, Audubon Park, and Tulane University. She attended Henry W. Allen Elementary and then Isadore Newman School.

    Kohlmeyer majored in literature at Newcomb College at Tulane University, where she obtained a B.A. in English literature in 1933. The following year she married Hugh Bernard Kohlmeyer, and...

  135. Latrobe, John Hazlehurst Boneval (1803–1891) PAINTER AND SKETCH ARTIST
    (pp. 363-364)

    American artist-philanthropist John Hazlehurst Boneval Latrobe was born in Philadelphia on 4 May 1803 to English architect-engineer Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe and Mary Elizabeth Hazlehurst Latrobe. The elder Latrobe served as chief architect for the U.S. Capitol, designed the original House of Representatives wing, and supervised the rebuilding of the Capitol after it was burned by the British during the War of 1812. John H. B. Latrobe, who was the first son of his father’s second marriage, was reared in Washington, D.C. He was educated at home, at schools in the District, in Baltimore, and afterward at Georgetown College, from...

  136. Long, Benjamin Franklin, IV (b. 1945) PAINTER
    (pp. 364-365)

    Although born in Texas, Benjamin Franklin Long IV grew up in Statesville, N.C., the ancestral home of his family. His grandfather, McKendree Robbins Long, was an evangelist and visionary artist whose fiery apocalyptic paintings fail to foreshadow the profoundly peaceful frescoes of his more neoclassically minded descendant. Ben Long entered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill at age 18, and while a creative writing student of Reynolds Price he began to develop his interest in the visual arts. When this distinguished heir of the Southern Renascence “slowly leafed through ” Long’s sketchbook, Price was amazed that the “all-but-silent...

  137. Malone, Blondelle Octavia Edwards (1877–1951) PAINTER
    (pp. 365-367)

    Adventuresome and headstrong, Blondelle Octavia Edwards Malone took full advantage of the financial support her parents offered, a network of connections to international members of the art community, and a belief in her artistic talent, which she parlayed into a viable career as the “Garden Artist of America,” though she rarely sold her paintings.

    The only child of Miles Alexander and Sarah Glenn (Jones) Malone, she was born 16 November 1877, near Bostwick, Ga. When she was an infant, the family moved to Augusta and resided there long enough for her to attend kindergarten. The family relocated to Columbia, S.C.,...

  138. Marling, Jacob (ca. 1773–1833) PAINTER
    (pp. 367-368)

    For 40 years Jacob Marling worked primarily in Virginia and North Carolina, painting genre and historical works, portraits, miniatures, landscapes, and still lifes. He also worked as an art teacher and museum director. In addition to his portrait of North Carolina governor Montfort Stokes (ca. 1830), Marling is best known today for an important Federal period painting now in the Chrysler Museum entitled Crowning of Flora (ca. 1816) and a scene of the first North Carolina statehouse (ca. 1820). A still life composition of a bowl of cherries is the only known work of art signed “Marling.”

    The first professional...

  139. Marschall, Nicola (1829–1917) DRAFTSMAN AND PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 368-369)

    Nicola Marschall was born in St. Wendel, Rhenish Prussia, to Emanuel Marschall, a prosperous tobacco and wine merchant, and his wife, Margaret Mohr. He was reputed to have had some training at the Düsseldorf Academy in Germany prior to his arrival in New Orleans in 1849. After a brief sojourn in Mobile, Ala., he became an art, music, and dance instructor at the Marion (Ala.) Female Seminary. He returned to Europe in 1851 for further studies at Düsseldorf and Munich, where he worked with Pieter C. Bernhard, a court painter to the Wittelsbach dynasty. Marschall came back to America in...

  140. Mazzanovich, Lawrence (1871–1959) PAINTER
    (pp. 369-370)

    Lorenzo Mazzanovich came to the American South from the island of Hvar in the Adriatic to serve during the Civil War, in a “Slavonian” regiment composed of Croatians from Louisiana. After the war, Lorenzo took his wife and children to California, and they were among the earliest non-Hispanic families to settle in Los Angeles. During their relocation to San Francisco, which already had a Croatian community, Lorenzo’s son Lawrence was born on a ship off the Golden Gate. Lawrence’s mother died when he was very young; his father, a musician, was abusive, and the boy experienced a peripatetic youth of...

  141. McCarty Pottery
    (pp. 370-371)

    Potters Erma Rone “Pup” McCarty and Lee McCarty lived and worked outside Merigold in the heart of the Mississippi Delta. For nearly 50 years the McCartys transformed the earth of Mississippi and its plants into clays and glazes. Perhaps it was the element of natural beauty mixed with the couple’s creative spirit that attracted many visitors to the pottery; the product is not dull or uncultivated, nor is it overly refined. A combination of rusticity and grace makes their pieces suitable for everyday use, as well as visually appealing in art exhibitions.

    Lee McCarty grew up in Merigold, and his...

  142. McCrady, John (1911–1968) PAINTER
    (pp. 371-373)

    Mississippi artist John McCrady was born in the rectory of Grace Episcopal Church in Canton on 11 September 1911, the seventh child of Rev. Edward and Mary Tucker McCrady. Subsequently moving to Greenwood, Miss., the family relocated to Hammond, La., and then Lake Charles, La., eventually settling in Oxford, Miss., where Rev. McCrady assumed the rectorship at St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, later becoming head of the Philosophy Department at the University of Mississippi. John finished secondary school in Oxford, graduating in 1930 from University High, where he was a star football player and occasional illustrator for the school’s newspaper. His...

  143. Meeker, Joseph Rusling (1827–1887) LANDSCAPE PAINTER
    (pp. 373-374)

    Joseph Rusling Meeker was born in Newark, N.J., in 1827 but moved to Auburn, N.Y., with his family the following year. His childhood efforts in watercolor were encouraged by a local carriage painter, Thomas J. Kennedy. Meeker was granted a scholarship for study at the National Academy of Design in 1845, and there he studied portraiture with Charles Loring Eliot and observed the work of academy director Asher Brown Durand, the noted luminist landscape artist.

    Following his studies, Meeker moved to Buffalo, N.Y., where he painted his first landscapes. He was active in Louisville, Ky., from 1852 to 1859, teaching...

  144. Meucci, Antonio / Meucci, Nina (active 1818–1847/52) PAINTER / (active 1818–ca. 1834) PAINTER
    (pp. 375-376)

    The historical record is surprisingly detailed regarding Antonio and Nina Meucci, a husband-and-wife team of miniaturists and portrait painters with an extended itinerancy. Although many miniaturists learned their trade as apprentices to craftsmen, Antonio claimed to have been a member of several academies in his native Italy. Newspaper advertisements state that Nina, Meucci’s Spanish wife, learned to paint from him. The couple’s surviving miniatures are charming though unremarkable portraits that are stylistically indistinguishable from the work of their contemporaries. The Meuccis first appeared in New Orleans in 1818, having arrived from Rome. The earliest advertisement states that each painted portraits...

  145. Millet, Clarence (1897–1959) PAINTER AND PRINTMAKER
    (pp. 376-378)

    Clarence Millet was a fixture in Louisiana art circles for 45 years. He was born on 24 March 1897 in the town of Hahnville in St. Charles Parish and was educated in Louisiana’s public schools. Millet took a position as a shipping clerk in a New Orleans store. After he copied a magazine illustration, he was encouraged to become an artist, an idea that he had previously nurtured. Largely self-taught, Millet held his first solo exhibition at the Artists’ Guild, the forerunner of the Arts and Crafts Club of New Orleans, in the Old Mortgage Building at the corner of...

  146. Mills, Robert (1781–1855) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 378-379)

    Born in Charleston, S.C., Robert Mills is often said to be the first native-born American to train specifically for a career in architecture. He served as an apprentice and draftsman under James Hoban during the construction of the White House and then enjoyed the use of Jefferson’s architectural library and executed drawings for the new president. With letters of introduction from Jefferson, Mills toured the seaboard as far north as Boston. In 1803 he entered the office of Benjamin Henry Latrobe and worked in and around Philadelphia until 1809. In that year he married Eliza Barnwell Smith of Winchester, Va.,...

  147. Mr. Feuille (active ca. 1834–1841) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 379-380)

    The portrait painter Feuille, whose first name is unknown, is said to have been frequently conflated with his brother, Jean-François Feuille, a copperplate engraver who was active in New Orleans at the same time. Scholars have speculated that the Feuille brothers immigrated to the United States from France, although there is no solid evidence to support this contention. The name Feuille first appears in the records of the National Academy of Design in New York, where one of the two men was an associate member in 1832. The first record of the name Feuille in New Orleans is an advertisement...

  148. Mizner, Addison Cairns (1872–1933) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 380-381)

    Born in Benicia, Calif., Addison Cairns Mizner revived Spanish-style architecture in Florida and exerted a major influence on the development of Palm Beach. Although he had no formal training in architecture and, in fact, earned no academic degree, he did study design in Guatemala and at the University of Salamanca, Spain. More important for his architectural career, he acquired practical experience while apprenticed from 1893 to 1896 to the architect Willis Polk in San Francisco. He also gained a broad knowledge of architecture from his extensive travels in China, Central America, and Europe. While in Guatemala, Mizner began trading in...

  149. Mohamed, Ethel Wright (1906–1992) ARTIST
    (pp. 381-382)

    At the age of 60, Ethel Wright Mohamed, of Belzoni, Miss., began to create pictures in embroidery, and by age 75 she had created over 125 extraordinary memory pictures. The Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage invited Mohamed to participate in its 1974 Folklife Festival, which featured artists from Mississippi, and exhibited her work in its 1976 bicentennial festival. Mohamed’s work was displayed at both the 1982 and 1984 World’s Fairs.

    Ethel Wright was born in 1906 and grew up near Eupora, Miss. Working at a local bakery at age 16, she met 32-year-old Hassan Mohamed, owner of the...

  150. Molinary, Andres (1847–1915) PAINTER, ART TEACHER, RESTORER, PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 382-383)

    The son of an Italian father and Spanish mother, Andres Molinary was born in Gibraltar in 1847. He studied with Lorenzo Valles at the Academia de Bellas Artes in Seville, at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, and in East Africa and Morocco. Molinary toured Italy, Spain, and Africa with artist-friends, including Spanish painter Mariano José Maria Bernardo Fortuny y Carbo, sketching and painting exotic and historic vistas. Molinary also traveled in Mexico and Central America.

    In 1872 Molinary traveled to New Orleans, where his uncle, John Brunasso, was a partner in the import company Fatjo and Brunasso. After...

  151. Moreland, William Lee (b. 1927) ARTIST
    (pp. 383-386)

    Louisiana native William Moreland had a long and influential career in his home state as an artist, professor of art, and arts administrator at the University of Southwestern Louisiana, now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Active at the university from 1955 to 1986, during a critical period of transition in the art world and in the South, Moreland and this art program nurtured new generations of artists in the Acadiana region. In addition to the advancement of his own art over a period of more than 50 years, Moreland played a significant role, with his faculty and colleagues, in...

  152. Morgan, Elemore, Jr. (1931–2008) PAINTER AND PHOTOGRAPHER
    (pp. 386-387)

    In one sense, Elemore Morgan Jr. was a traditionalist, perhaps the only traditional landscape painter who was fully embraced by the South’s mainstream art world. This is because his Louisiana vistas of Acadiana prairies are far more than they seem. To be sure, Morgan is a part of the long expressionist tradition. One can easily cite historical analogues in the work of Vincent van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and André Derain—so much intense and exuberant brushwork, so much nondescriptive fauvist color. But there is also a distinct departure. Above all, his characteristic work focuses on a chosen segment of the...

  153. Murphy Family ARTISTS
    (pp. 387-389)

    Savannah is the oldest city in Georgia, and 21 of the original town squares remain intact. One of them, Chippewa Square, contains a commemorative statue of James Oglethorpe, founder of the city. A home and adjacent commercial building facing that square, purchased in 1908 by Christopher Murphy, became a haven for a family of artists who were integral to the development of the visual arts in the region. Christopher and Lucile Murphy and two of their seven children were born in Savannah, and the four artists lived in that home until the ends of their lives. They each actively played...

  154. National Heritage Fellowships
    (pp. 389-391)

    The National Endowment for the Arts, established in 1965 by act of Congress, created the National Heritage Fellowships to recognize and preserve the rich and diverse cultural heritage of the United States. These fellowships are the highest honor this country can bestow upon master folk and traditional artists. The National Endowment for the Arts’ Folk Art Program, which granted its first fellowship awards in 1982, follows a folkloristic definition of folk art; honorees are more likely to be practitioners of local craft traditions than artists whose artwork is distinguished by idiosyncrasy or aesthetic value.

    The number of awardees per year...

  155. National Society of the Colonial Dames of America
    (pp. 391-392)

    The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America (nscda), a voluntary organization for women, was established in 1891 to foster a national appreciation for America’s early history and culture through patriotic service, educational projects, and historic preservation. An unincorporated association of 44 corporate societies with over 15,000 members, the headquarters is located at Dumbarton House in Washington, D.C. Membership is determined by established ancestral lineage to individuals who lived in the colonies before the American Revolution.

    The nscda encourages responsible citizenship, educates new citizens, and supports classroom instruction on American history. It sponsors high school essays and offers scholarships...

  156. Newman, Willie Betty (1863–1935) PAINTER
    (pp. 392-394)

    At the turn of the 20th century, there was no more important or influential figure in the visual arts in Tennessee than Willie Betty Newman. Indeed, the 1910 Who’s Who in America listed only one artist for the entire state of Tennessee: Willie Betty Newman of Nashville. She was born on Maple Grove Plantation, later known as Betty Place, on 21 January 1863, during her father’s service as a second lieutenant in the 28th Regiment of the Army of Tennessee. Her grandfather, Benjamin Rucker, built the plantation near Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tenn., in 1832. She was the second daughter—her...

  157. Ninas, Paul (1903–1964) PAINTER
    (pp. 394-395)

    Modernist painter Paul Ninas was born on 7 May 1903 in Leeton, Mo., and reared in the Midwest and California. He traveled widely, including to Sardinia, Italy, Sicily, the Greek islands, Tunisia, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and Algeria, deriving inspiration for his artworks. His training began at the University of Nebraska and Robert College in Constantinople in 1921, after which he received his M.F.A. from the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1925.

    In 1926 Ninas was selected by a committee, chaired by Isadora Duncan, as one of the first American artists honored with an exhibition at...

  158. Noble, Thomas Satterwhite (1835–1907) PAINTER
    (pp. 395-397)

    Thomas Satterwhite Noble was born in Lexington, Ky., to a prosperous family who owned ropewalks for the twisting of hemp into binding cords for southern cotton. He grew up in an environment of slaveholders and slave traders, witnessing auctions on Cheapside in Lexington and listening to slave talk in the cabins behind his father’s ropewalk.

    Noble departed Lexington for art studies in Louisville with Samuel Woodson Price. Through Price, Oliver Frazer, and George Peter Alexander Healy, Noble learned of the atelier of Thomas Couture in Paris, France. In 1856 Noble enrolled in Couture’s studio, where he enhanced his drawing skills...

  159. Oelschig, Augusta Denk (1918–2000) PAINTER
    (pp. 397-398)

    Augusta Denk Oelschig, a native of Savannah, Ga., developed an artistic style that aligned closely with her personal resolve to say something visually about her intense feelings concerning the world around her. The fourth and youngest child of Carl Henry and Josephine (Denk) Oelschig, she was named after her maternal grandfather, August Denk, with whom she shared a 12 June birthday. The family had deep roots in the city; her father owned a nursery business that had been started by his father. Oelschig displayed a talent for drawing from an early age, something that may have been a familial trait,...

  160. Ohr, George Edgar (1857–1918) POTTER
    (pp. 398-400)

    George Edgar Ohr, the self-proclaimed Mad Potter of Biloxi, was a ceramic artist active in Biloxi, Miss., from 1882 to 1907. Born in Biloxi on 12 July 1857 to eastern European immigrants Johanna Wiedman Ohr and George Edgar Ohr Sr., he spent his early career training in his father’s blacksmith shop.

    The young Ohr quickly gave up smithing and went on to study pottery with Joseph Fortuné Meyer, a Biloxi native and New Orleans potter. During these early years with Meyer, Ohr learned the mechanics of the pottery trade. In 1881 he left New Orleans to begin a two-year trip...

  161. Persac, Marie Adrien (1823–1873) PHOTOGRAPHER, ARTIST, LITHOGRAPHER
    (pp. 400-401)

    French artist Marie Adrien Persac spent the majority of his lifetime in the American South, primarily in southern Louisiana. Persac, one of four children, was born in Lyon, France, on 14 December 1823 to Pierre Edouard Persac and Pauline-Sophie-Marie Falloux. He came to America about 1842 and married Odile Daigre in Baton Rouge, La., on 8 December 1851. Records indicate that at this time Persac was a resident of Jefferson County, Ind., though there are no records that indicate how and when the artist arrived in Louisiana or that provide information on his artistic training. The couple and their three...

    (pp. 401-406)

    Robert Rauschenberg rose to be one of the most influential artists in the world through his achievements in several genres of art. He was a painter, photographer, printmaker, performance artist, choreographer, and set designer. His refusal to follow traditional paths or to be limited by established artistic or critical categories was a central element in the evolution of his art and his career.

    Born in Port Arthur, a struggling Gulf Coast oil refinery town, Rauschenberg had formative experiences in Texas essential to the development of the subjects and materials used in his mature art. Settling in New York in 1949,...

  163. Rice, Edward (b. 1953) PAINTER
    (pp. 406-407)

    Edward Rice grew up in North Augusta, S.C., just across the Savannah River from Augusta, Ga., and maintains his studio in a red-brick building that was at one time a city jail. His grandfather, former chief of police in the riverfront town, had renovated the decommissioned building into living space, where grandchildren were frequent visitors.

    His parents, Patrick and Jane Rice, reared creative sons: twin brother Patrick is a musician, brother Matthew is an architect, and brother John is a cabinetmaker. Edward Rice’s earliest forays into art came when he discovered he could earn more money by making sketches of...

  164. Richard, Jim (b. 1943) PAINTER AND COLLAGIST
    (pp. 408-409)

    Jim Richard is a tireless observer of human environments. He watches the way humans live, noting choices, chiefly concerning domestic spaces—analyzing people, and perhaps evaluating people. Since the early 1970s, with extraordinary acuity, he has recast what he sees into minded ironies—both formal and cultural. And the consequence is an oeuvre that confronts American society obliquely but surely.

    Born in 1943 in Port Arthur, Tex., Richard studied at Lamar University in Beaumont (B.S., 1965) and at the University of Colorado (M.F.A., 1968). His exhibition history is extensive, including the 1973 Extraordinary Realities at New York’s Whitney Museum, numerous...

  165. Richards, Thomas Addison (1820–1900) ARTIST AND TRAVEL WRITER
    (pp. 409-411)

    Thomas Addison Richards was born on 3 December 1820, the son of a Baptist minister, who settled his family in Hudson, N.Y., following their arrival from London, England, in 1831. The Richards family, which included brother William Cary, then traveled south, stopping in Charleston, S.C., before settling in Penfield, Ga., in 1835. During his youth, Richards completed two works that showed his early dedication to the arts, travel, and nature. At age 12 he created a 150-page unpublished, illustrated manuscript of watercolors chronicling his voyage from England to America. In 1838, at age 18, the artist illustrated a book on...

  166. Rowell, Louis (1870–1928) PAINTER
    (pp. 411-412)

    A plein air landscape painter of the southern mountains, Louis Rowell (pronounced “role”) was born in Vineland, N.J. He came to Tryon, N.C., in his early twenties with his tubercular mother and father, a violinist and Union veteran from Maine, whose health had been broken by military service during the Civil War. After the deaths of his parents, Rowell stayed on in the mountain village, earning his living as a musician and learning to paint from the artists who began congregating at Tryon in the 1890s.

    Unlike the professional painters who mentored him in Tryon, Rowell had no benefit of...

  167. Ruellan, Andrée (1905–2006) PAINTER
    (pp. 412-414)

    New York artist Andrée Ruellan lived her long life composing harmonic narratives with golden-hued colors and a strong sense of order. Born of French parents in New York in 1905, at a young age Ruellan attended the Armory Show, the groundbreaking event in 1913 that introduced modern art to a broad American public. The following year she contributed drawings and watercolors of city streets to a group exhibition in New York, invited by the renowned teacher, theorist, and painter Robert Henri, and published a work in the liberal magazine Masses.

    In the early 1920s Ruellan studied at the important training...

  168. Salazar y Mendoza, José Francisco Xavier de (mid-1700s–1802) PAINTER
    (pp. 414-415)

    José Francisco Xavier de Salazar y Mendoza was the foremost painter in Louisiana during the Spanish colonial period. Arriving in New Orleans in 1782 from Mérida in Yucatán, Salazar painted portraits in the city for 20 years and produced a visual record of its civic and religious leaders, including philanthropist Andrés Almonester y Roxas (1796), Dr. Joseph Montegut (ca. 1797), Padre Antonio de Sedella (ca. 1800), and Bishop LuÍs de Peñalver y Cárdenas (1801).

    Inconsistencies in Salazar’s painting style and drawing problems often suggest joint artistic ventures with his daughter, Francisca de Salazar y Magaña. Salazar’s early life and artistic...

  169. Sawyier, Paul (1865–1917) PAINTER
    (pp. 415-417)

    Paul Sawyier was born in Madison County, Ohio, the son of physician Nathaniel Sawyier and his wife, Ellen Wingate Sawyier. In 1870 the family moved to Frankfort, Ky., where young Paul took his first art lessons from Elizabeth S. Hutchins, a Cincinnati artist. From 1884 to 1885 he studied drawing in life classes at the Cincinnati Art Academy conducted by Thomas Satterwhite Noble, and for the next two years he shared a studio in Cincinnati with Avery Sharp, specializing in pastel and charcoal portraits, most of which were done from photographs.

    Sawyier returned to Frankfort in 1886 to work for...

  170. Scarborough, William Harrison (1812–1871) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 417-418)

    William Harrison Scarborough was born in Dover, Tenn., on 7 November 1812 to John and Sally Bosworth Scarborough. The family derived from Scarborough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England. Apparently their ties to the old country were strong, as the artist Scarborough often displayed a coat of arms dating from the War of the Roses. Biographer Helen Kohn Hennig notes that he “sealed his letters with a white rose as a memento of the sympathies of his family in days gone by.”

    Scarborough originally studied medicine in Cincinnati, around 1828, before deciding to become an artist instead. He worked...

  171. Sébron, Hippolyte Victor Valentin (1801–1879) PAINTER
    (pp. 418-419)

    Artist Hippolyte Victor Valentin Sébron was born on 21 August 1801 in Caudebec, France. He studied under Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and Léon Cogniet. Sébron, whose first name also appears at times as Hyppolite, had only one arm. He nonetheless produced an extraordinary body of large paintings. Known in his early career for his dioramas and landscapes, Sébron also painted portraits, architectural views, and interior scenes produced from his extensive travels throughout Europe, Asia, and the United States.

    In June 1833 Sébron exhibited “an inimitable copy” of John Martin’s painting Belshazzar’s Feast (1820), which was well known at the time....

  172. Shackelford, William Stamms (ca. 1814–ca. 1878) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 419-420)

    Born in Kentucky in ca. 1814, William Stamms Shackelford began his painting career in the 1830s in Lexington, where it is believed he received some initial art instruction from sculptor Joel Tanner Hart. In 1833–34 Shackelford executed one of his first commissions, assisting painter Oliver Frazer with a portrait of George Washington destined for the Kentucky statehouse. Within the next year he relocated to Athens, Tenn. From this point Shackelford divided his time between the two states, living and painting intermittently in various cities and towns until the late 1870s. He worked primarily in Clarksville while in Tennessee in...

  173. Shannon, Charles Eugene (1914–1996) PAINTER
    (pp. 420-421)

    In the 1930s and early 1940s Charles Shannon emerged as a leading painter of the American Scene in Alabama. With an urgent and expressive realism, he wrestled with the emotionally rich and socially divisive life and times around him in the rural South during the Great Depression. He engaged in a far-reaching aesthetic of American artists observing and documenting their local surroundings that became celebrated through the populist, highly promoted regionalist art of Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, and John Steuart Curry. In a larger sense, this accessible, narrative American Scene art also developed from a widespread spirit of American...

  174. Shapleigh, Frank Henry (1842–1906) PAINTER
    (pp. 421-423)

    Frank Henry Shapleigh’s early education took place at the Dwight School in Boston, followed by art study at the Lowell Institute in Boston. From 1862 to 1863 Shapleigh served in the Massachusetts regiment active in the Civil War’s North Carolina campaign. He established a studio in Boston after the war and later supplemented painting sales by selling his copyrights to chromolithograph companies. From 1866 to 1868 Shapleigh was in Europe, where he received instruction from Emile Charles Lambinet in Paris. For six weeks during the summer of 1870 Shapleigh painted in California’s Yosemite Valley. He married his wife, Mary, that...

  175. Silva, William Posey (1859–1948) PAINTER
    (pp. 423-424)

    Landscape painter William Posey Silva was born 23 October 1859 in Savannah, Ga., where he was educated at Chatham Academy; he later studied engineering at the University of Virginia. Silva devoted himself to painting at an early age but did not pursue a career in art until he was approaching the half-century mark. He joined the family’s chinaware and hardware business, first in Savannah and later in Chattanooga, Tenn. He continued to paint, however, and spent the summers of 1900 through 1905 studying composition with Arthur Wesley Dow in Ipswich, Mass.

    In 1906, at the age of 47, Silva sold...

  176. Smith, Alice Ravenel Huger (1876–1958) ARTIST
    (pp. 424-425)

    In the decades following Reconstruction, Charleston fell on hard times and vast sections of the historic city fell into disrepair. Charlestonians, it has been said, were “too poor to paint and too proud to whitewash.” For Alice Ravenel Huger Smith, the lack of resources meant that she could not go away to art school or travel, which totally suited her inclinations to mine her own environment. Through her paintings and publications, Smith spearheaded the Charleston Renaissance, a cultural reawakening that brought about the preservation and revitalization of the area.

    Smith’s art education was limited to classes conducted by Mademoiselle Louise...

  177. Smith, Marshall Joseph, Jr. (1854–1923) PAINTER
    (pp. 425-427)

    Born in Norfolk, Va., on 1 December 1854, painter-draftsman Marshall Joseph Smith Jr. was the son of Col. Marshall Joseph Smith and Mary Taylor Smith, who moved to Louisiana when young Marshall was still a child. The family then relocated to Mississippi during the Civil War, Marshall’s father having joined a regiment of Louisiana volunteers. Following the war, Marshall, who showed a passion for art during childhood, attended college in Virginia, during which time he had some art training. He returned to Louisiana, where he studied art formally with Adolphe J. Jacquet and then with landscape painter Richard Clague Jr....

  178. Smith, Xanthus (1839–1915) PAINTER
    (pp. 427-428)

    Xanthus Smith was born on 26 February 1839 in Philadelphia, at the Locust Street home of his parents, Russell and Mary Priscilla Wilson Smith. He grew up in a family of artists, and his father was celebrated for his theatrical scene painting as well as his landscape art. His mother and sister, Mary Russell Smith, were artists as well. Their legendary stone manor house, Edgehill, was long a destination for the most ambitious collectors and earnest artists in 19thcentury Philadelphia. In this nurturing environment young Smith honed his precocious skills as a draftsman accomplished in intricate detail.

    In 1851–52...

  179. Southern States Art League
    (pp. 428-429)

    The Southern States Art League (ssal), initially named the All Southern Art Association, was created in 1921 to make possible the comprehensive exhibition of art about the South, including the best efforts of southern artists. Those artists whose works were judged excellent enough to represent the South did so at annual exhibitions, which were held in major southern cities and at traveling circuit exhibitions throughout the South.

    The goals of the ssal were to increase public awareness of the talents of southern artists, to improve the artists’ status, to encourage patronage and sales of members’ works, to educate the public...

  180. Steene, William (1888–1965) PAINTER
    (pp. 429-430)

    William Steene’s French mother met his father, a Dutch shoe-last designer who claimed descent from the genre painter Jan Steen, on the ship taking them to America. Steene was born in Syracuse, N.Y., where he first exhibited history canvases and portraits at the age of 19 and was a denizen of the local art museum. After studying in New York City at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design, he went to Paris for training at the private academies then favored by Americans. Back in New York he soon achieved success as a portrait painter and architectural...

  181. Stevens, Will Henry (1881–1949) PAINTER AND TEACHER
    (pp. 430-433)

    Will Henry Stevens was born in Vevay, Ind., a small town across the Kentucky border along the Ohio River. Stevens’s father was an apothecary, from whom he learned chemistry, knowledge that enabled him to experiment with his multimedia artworks. At the age of 16, Stevens entered the Cincinnati Art Academy, where he studied under Kentucky painter Frank Duveneck, impressionist landscape artist Lewis Henry Meakin, and painter-musician Vincent C. Nowottny. After three years at the academy, Stevens continued his training in Cincinnati at the Rookwood Pottery as a tile designer. In 1901 he moved to New York to study at the...

  182. Straus, Meyer (1831–1905) PAINTER
    (pp. 433-434)

    Originally a scene painter in theaters and opera houses, Meyer Straus became known for his luminous bayou scenes and California landscapes. He was born in Bavaria in 1831 and emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1848 at the age of 17. He lived briefly in Ohio and relocated to St. Louis, where he worked as a scene painter in the Old Pine Street Theater. Straus traveled throughout the South painting stage sets—to Mobile, New Orleans, and other places. In 1869 he exhibited in New Orleans at Wagener and Meyer’s at 166 Canal Street. He was engaged by...

  183. Sugimoto, Henry Yuzuru (1900–1990) PAINTER
    (pp. 434-436)

    Prior to World War II, Henry Yuzuru Sugimoto enjoyed success as a landscape painter in California. The future was promising until the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. Within seven months Sugimoto and his family were evacuated from the West Coast to inland camps where they were held for the duration of the war. It was during this time that the focus of his art shifted from landscapes to narrative paintings.

    Born in 1900 in Wakayama, Japan, Sugimoto spent his youth in the care of his maternal grandparents after his parents immigrated to Hanford, Calif. His artistic ability was...

  184. Sully, Thomas (1783–1872) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 436-437)

    Known primarily as a portrait painter, Thomas Sully completed over 2,000 portraits during his successful career. His often romantically styled paintings have been compared in skill to portrait artists like Gilbert Stuart and Sir Thomas Lawrence. One of nine children, Sully was born in Horncastle, Lincolnshire, England, on 19 June 1783. His parents, Matthew and Sarah Chester Sully, worked as actors, and in 1792 Sully’s family immigrated to the United States. In America, young Sully was educated in New York and then in Charleston, S.C., where the family moved following his mother’s death in 1794. In Charleston, the Sully family,...

  185. Taylor, Anna Heyward (1879–1956) WATERCOLORIST
    (pp. 437-438)

    At the turn of the 20th century, women artists began to shed the restrictions of the Victorian age. They took their training seriously, often filling classes at art schools in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston and enjoying summer courses held in such agreeable locales as Provincetown, Mass., and Shinnecock, N.Y. Columbia, S.C., native Anna Heyward Taylor was one of the many women to pursue this course, which introduced her to a vast world beyond South Carolina, part of a South that was described by H. L. Mencken as “the Sahara of the Bozart.”

    Born in the state capital, Taylor descended...

  186. Thieme, Anthony (1888–1954) PAINTER
    (pp. 438-440)

    Although his parents opposed an art career for their son, Anthony Thieme studied painting at the Academy of Fine Art in Rotterdam and at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague, as well as in Italy and Germany. In 1910 Thieme designed a New York stage production starring Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova, and after immigrating to Boston in 1917 he worked there as a set designer. By 1928 he had turned his talent to easel painting; in 1929 he established an atelier in Rockport, Mass.

    Thieme’s fame as a Rockport artist soared during the 1930s and 1940s, and the...

  187. Thomas, Alma Woodsey (1891–1978) PAINTER
    (pp. 440-442)

    Alma Woodsey Thomas overcame barriers of race, gender, and age to become a respected, nationally known artist. She was born in Columbus, Ga., in 1891 into an educated, middle-class African American household; her father was a businessman and her mother was a dress designer. Her maternal grandparents had a farm nearby in Alabama, where Thomas first developed the love for nature and the environment that would become the inspiration for her artwork.

    The lack of educational opportunities for their children in Columbus and fears resulting from the Atlanta race riots of 1906 convinced Thomas’s parents to move to Washington, D.C....

  188. Toole, John (1815–1860) PAINTER
    (pp. 442-443)

    Like a countless number of his peers, John Toole had to travel constantly to find customers for his portraits. While maintaining a permanent home outside Charlottesville, Va., he found work throughout the region now encompassed by the states of Virginia and West Virginia. In major cities like Richmond and Norfolk, Toole rented residences and advertised his presence in the local newspaper. While traveling in the countryside, he resided in his patrons’ homes for the duration of his commission. Toole’s portraits, most of which remain in family collections, have received little scholarly attention. Nonetheless, Toole had a prolific career, producing over...

  189. Town, A. Hays (1903–2005) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 443-444)

    Although he lived in Mississippi for only 13 years, architect A. Hays Town had a profound impact on the state’s built environment. Town’s contribution came through two very distinct phases of his long and illustrious career. During his first period of influence, when he lived in Mississippi, he helped to introduce modern architecture to the state; during his second period of influence he was influential in rekindling an interest in Mississippi’s vernacular architectural traditions.

    Town was born in 1903 in Crowley, La., and was educated at Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette) and at Tulane University....

  190. Trivigno, Pat (b. 1922) PAINTER AND TEACHER
    (pp. 444-446)

    The only child of Italian immigrants, Pat Trivigno was born in Queens, N.Y. He has had a lifetime interest in art, which was encouraged by his parents. At the age of 12 he was selected to be in the first class of the new Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music and Art. As a teenager Trivigno made weekly visits to local museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, to examine old master paintings. Additionally, he was able to view murals that Mexican muralist Diego Rivera was painting for the Rockefeller Center. Trivigno studied at the Leonardo da Vinci Art...

  191. Trott, Benjamin (ca. 1770–1843) PAINTER
    (pp. 446-447)

    Although Benjamin Trott was born in Boston, he had a strong association with the South. His first known works are bust-length oil portraits of residents of Nottoway and Amelia counties in Virginia that he may have painted in collaboration with William Lovett in 1793. Trott advertised his drawing school, opened late that same year in Boston, and his skill in miniature painting; in May of the following year he noted his ability to execute “miniature painting and devices in hair.” By 1794 Trott had moved to New York City, where he painted miniature watercolor-on-ivory copies of Gilbert Stuart’s oil portraits....

  192. Troye, Edward (1808–1874) ANIMAL PAINTER
    (pp. 447-449)

    Edward Troye has long been regarded as 19th-century America’s most important painter of thoroughbred horses. For 40 years, from 1832 until 1872, he traveled the country painting portraits of the most noted racers, stallions, and mares. Arriving in America just as turf racing reached its peak, Troye found a ready market. It was the “palmy time of the turf,” and horsemen in America, as proud of their stock as their English counterparts, followed the European practice of documenting their prized animals in oil portraits. Troye was the first of the sporting artists to firmly establish himself in America, and he...

  193. Turner, Helen Maria (1858–1958) PAINTER
    (pp. 449-451)

    Helen Maria Turner, the seventh child of Mortimer and Helen Davidson Turner of New Orleans, was born in Louisville, Ky., during an extended vacation. Laurette “Lettie” Turner, the eighth child, was born after the family relocated to Baton Rouge at the beginning of the Civil War. Mortimer Turner, a coal merchant, operated river and coastal cargo boats within Louisiana’s waterways. His boats were coniscated by Union troops, who also burned down the family home. In 1862 the Turners lost their oldest child, 17-year-old Charles, who died while serving in the Confederate army. Two months after the war’s end the family...

  194. Valentine, Edward Virginius (1838–1930) SCULPTOR
    (pp. 451-452)

    The son of a prosperous merchant and member of a family who had lived in Virginia since the middle of the 17th century, Edward Virginius Valentine was born in Richmond, where he received his early education from tutors and private schools. He later attended the University of Virginia. Awarded a silver medal for a bust of the Apollo Belvedere in 1855, he began studying anatomy at the Medical College of Virginia the following year. After exhausting the resources of local artists, Valentine went abroad for further study: to London (1859), Paris (1859–60), and Italy (1861). In 1861 Valentine went...

  195. Vance, Eleanor (1869–1954) DESIGNER AND WOODCRAFTER
    (pp. 452-453)

    Eleanor Vance was cofounder of Biltmore Estate Industries and of Tryon Toy Makers and Wood Carvers. Her designs and teaching synthesized southern Appalachian traditions with Old World apprenticeship and craftsmanship. Vance grew up in Ohio and attended Cincinnati Art Academy, an institution that encouraged women. She studied wood arts under William Fry, son of an English carver who had worked on the Houses of Parliament, one of the major projects of 19th-century Gothic style. Fry, who emphasized organic, natural forms, was a disciple of John Ruskin and William Morris. Vance became Fry’s star student. At his urging she went to...

  196. Vaudechamp, Jean-Joseph (1790–1866) PAINTER
    (pp. 453-455)

    French artist Jean-Joseph Vaudechamp is considered one of the foremost painters working in New Orleans during the 1830s, where he wintered annually, returning to Paris in the summers. Vaudechamp was born in Rambervillers (Vosges), France, on 20 December 1790. His father, Jean-Baptiste Vaudechamp, was a chorister for a local congregation. As a child Jean-Joseph moved to Paris, where he was under the care of his paternal aunt Marie-Jean Vaudechamp. Her husband, prominent poet Jacques Delille, was a friend of French neoclassical painter Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson. Through this friendship Vaudechamp entered Girodet’s atelier and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts....

  197. Verner, Elizabeth O’Neill (1883–1979) PRINTMAKER, PASTELLIST, PRESERVATIONIST
    (pp. 455-456)

    Elizabeth O’Neill Verner contributed her considerable energies to the revitalization of her birthplace. Like her mentor, Alice Ravenel Huger Smith, Verner took great pride in her native Charleston and worked diligently to promote it. After attending a Catholic girls’ school in Columbia, S.C., she spent two years at the prestigious Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Verner studied with Thomas Anshutz, from whom she gained a sound foundation in drawing, especially the human figure. She returned to South Carolina and taught for a year in Aiken before settling in Charleston, where she married in 1907 and reared two children. Verner...

  198. Viavant, George Louis (1872–1925) PAINTER
    (pp. 456-457)

    One of the better-known painters of nature morte, native New Orleanian George Louis Viavant was born in 1872 to wealthy Creole parents. Viavant demonstrated an early talent for art and at the age of 12 began his art training at the Southern Art Union under Italian sculptor-painter Achille Perelli. Viavant met with immediate success. He received a diploma at the 1884–85 World’s Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, which took place in Audubon Park in uptown New Orleans. He also won a blue ribbon for a landscape he exhibited at the exposition that same year.

    Viavant’s father was a wealthy...

  199. Walker, William Aiken (1838–1921) PAINTER
    (pp. 457-459)

    Landscape and genre painter William Aiken Walker of Charleston, S.C., traveled extensively throughout the South and for 30 years made annual trips to New Orleans, which he came to regard as his second home. Walker painted southern plantation life, cabin scenes, rural life, and dock scenes—with a specific focus on African Americans. He was born in 1838; his father was a cotton agent and his mother was from South Carolina. After his father died, in 1842, his mother moved the family to Baltimore, and in 1848 she relocated to Charleston. Walker, who began exhibiting his work at the South...

  200. Walter, Martha (1875–1976) PAINTER AND TEACHER
    (pp. 459-460)

    Born in Philadelphia, Martha Walter attended Girls High School and in 1894 began her studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where William Merritt Chase would become her mentor and the major influence on her work. In 1902 she went to Paris on a Cresson Traveling Scholarship, enrolled in the Académie Julian, and joined a class at the Académie de la Grand Chaumière. In 1904 Walter exhibited two works at the Paris Salon. Soon impatient with the academicism of the Paris schools, she set out on her own and began painting en plein air in the manner of...

  201. Washington, William Dickinson (1833–1870) PORTRAITIST
    (pp. 460-461)

    William Dickinson Washington was born in Clarke County, Va., on 7 October 1833, to John Perrin Washington and Hannah Fairfax Whiting. He was a descendant of Lawrence and Mildred Warner Washington, the grandparents of Pres. George Washington. In 1834 his father secured a position with the U.S. Post Office and moved his family to the District of Columbia. While still a youth, Washington demonstrated prodigious skills as a draftsman and began his artistic career drawing models for the Patent Office. During 1851 and 1852 he worked with Emmanuel Leutze, who encouraged him to pursue further studies at the Düsseldorf Academy....

  202. Watson, Amelia Montague (1856–1934) PAINTER
    (pp. 461-463)

    Watercolor imagist of southern scenes who settled in the Tryon colony in North Carolina and painted much of her best work there, Amelia Montague “Minnie” Watson was an important link between the North’s intellectuals and the South’s burgeoning art communities in the early 20th century. Watson was born in East Windsor Hill, Conn., into a family related to influential reformers and academics of New England, some of whom had close ties to the South before the Civil War. Watson showed an early aptitude for art. She and her sister, Edith Sarah, were tutored by their mother, an amateur painter. At...

  203. Way, Andrew John Henry (1826–1888) PAINTER
    (pp. 463-464)

    Andrew John Henry Way, who was born in Washington, D.C., began his studies in art in Cincinnati with John Peter Frankenstein around 1847, prior to studies in Baltimore with Alfred Jacob Miller. He pursued further study in the Paris atelier of Michel Martin Drolling, as well as at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence from 1850 to 1854.

    Upon his return to the United States, Way settled in Baltimore, where he came to the attention of history painter Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, who urged him to follow the example of the Düsseldorf Academy as a stylistic guide. Way then began...

  204. Welty, Eudora (1909–2001) ARTIST, PHOTOGRAPHER, AUTHOR
    (pp. 464-465)

    Eudora Alice Welty was born in Jackson, Miss., where she lived all her life except for college studies, sojourns of one to six months in New York and San Francisco, and writing residencies at Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference, Yaddo, Bryn Mawr College, and Smith College. Her father, Christian Welty, of Ohio, founding president of the Lamar Life Insurance Company, was a man of progressive ideas who inculcated in his employees and family the urge to travel and thereby gain a worldview and empathy for others. From her mother, Chestina Andrews, a teacher from the mountains of West Virginia, Welty got...

  205. West, William Edward (1788–1857) PAINTER
    (pp. 465-467)

    William Edward West was born in Lexington, Ky., on 10 December 1788 to Maria Creed Brown and Edward West Jr., a Virginian who had moved to Kentucky in 1784. At an early age William Edward West traveled the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to Natchez and New Orleans and began an association with the Evans and Turner families of the Natchez region, whose relations and friends would provide his most important commissions.

    West visited Philadelphia, possibly as early as 1808, where he met Washington Irving and Thomas Sully, two lifelong friends and influences. Although it seems unlikely that West actually studied...

  206. Whitney, Daniel Webster (1898–1965) PAINTER AND ART TEACHER
    (pp. 467-468)

    Portraitist and landscape painter Daniel Webster Whitney was born on 3 May 1898 in Baltimore on the Bloomingdale estate near Catonville, Md., which kept horses and farm animals—subjects that would appear in Whitney’s later paintings. He studied at the Maryland Institute of Fine Arts, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Académie Colarossi in Paris.

    In the 1930s Whitney taught the portrait and life classes at the Arts and Crafts Club of New Orleans School of Art, located at 520–22 Royal Street in the French Quarter. He also conducted classes for the Adult Education Project of...

  207. Wiener, Samuel Gross (1896–1977) ARCHITECT
    (pp. 468-469)

    Samuel Gross Wiener was one of the earliest practitioners of modern architecture (the International style) in the United States and introduced the style to the South. Born in Monroe, La., Wiener received his Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Michigan in 1920 and attended the Atelier Gromort, Paris, in 1922 and 1923. He was the Shreveport partner in the Louisiana architectural firm of Jones, Roessle, Olschner, and Wiener from 1925 to 1940, after which he established a separate practice. Wiener’s work of the 1920s employs a wide range of then-fashionable historical styles as well as art deco, of...

  208. Wightman, Thomas (1811–1888) PAINTER
    (pp. 469-470)

    Thomas Wightman was born in Charleston, S.C., to William and Matilda Sandys Williams Wightman. His father, William, was a well-regarded amateur artist who encouraged the creative ambitions of two of his sons, Thomas and John. Matilda Wightman was born in England and grew to maturity in a family with very close ties to several leading members of the Methodist movement, including John Wesley and Adam Clarke. Although there are no accounts of Thomas Wightman’s early artistic formation, he may have come into contact with miniaturist Edward Malbone, who painted portraits of his parents.

    By 1834 Wightman had gone to New...

  209. Wiley, Anna Catherine (1879–1958) PAINTER
    (pp. 471-472)

    Tennessee native Anna Catherine Wiley played a pivotal role in the development of the visual arts in Knoxville, Tenn. Her brief career and legacy were preserved through the efforts of her younger sister, artist Eleanor McAdoo Wiley, who felt Catherine was the better artist of the two and deserved to have her work accessible to the public.

    Anna Catherine Wiley, known as Kate, was born on 18 February 1879 in Coal Creek (now Lake City), Tenn. Her father, Edwin Floyd, and mother, Mary Catherine McAdoo Wiley, were from families who had settled Anderson County, Tenn. They owned substantial holdings in...

  210. Wolfe, Karl Ferdinand/Wolfe, Mildred Bernice Nungester (1904–1985) PAINTER/(1912–2009) PAINTER
    (pp. 472-474)

    During the mid-20th century Mildred Nungester Wolfe and her husband, Karl Ferdinand Wolfe, were members of a group of talented artists who lived and worked in Jackson, Miss., which included Marie Atkinson Hull and William R. Hollingsworth Jr. A native Mississippian, Karl Wolfe was born in Brookhaven and spent his teen years in nearby Columbia, where he worked as a mechanic and bookkeeper to earn sufficient money for art school. Wolfe studied at the Art Institute of Chicago from 1924 to 1928 and received a European travel scholarship to France, England, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy.

    The Mississippi Art Association...

  211. Wollaston, John (ca. 1710–1775) PAINTER
    (pp. 474-475)

    According to 18th-century British art patron and chronicler Horace Walpole, John Wollaston was the son of a London portrait painter named John Woollaston. Walpole indicates that the younger Wollaston, born ca. 1710, studied with a notable drapery painter in London, possibly Joseph van Acken. The latter often completed costumes and other details for portrait painter Thomas Hudson, whose style seems to have influenced Wollaston. However, Wollaston’s portraits also share many similarities with those painted by London painter Bartholomew Dandridge.

    Nothing more is known about his early life—when or if he married or where he resided. Information about his artistic...

  212. Woodward, Ellsworth (1861–1939) ARTIST AND EDUCATOR
    (pp. 475-477)

    Ellsworth Woodward, younger brother of artist-teacher William Woodward, was born in Seekonk, Mass., on 14 July 1861. Ellsworth Woodward was active in a number of artistic endeavors, including Tulane University’s Free Saturday and Evening Courses and the New Orleans Art Pottery, both of which were seminal efforts leading to the establishment of the Newcomb College art program and its pottery enterprise. Woodward was a directing force for many art organizations, including the Southern States Art League and the Art Association of New Orleans. He is best remembered, however, as the director of Newcomb College’s School of Art. Woodward married Mary...

  213. Woodward, Laura (1834–1926) PAINTER
    (pp. 477-479)

    Laura Woodward, the daughter of Jane Genung Woodward and Hezekiah Woodward III, lived at home while teaching art during the 1860s. By 1872, after studying with several landscape painters, including William and James M. Hart, she became a professional artist living in New York City.

    It was written that Laura Woodward was “the foremost of the foremost of lady artists.” She was a naturalist who studied and depicted flowers, foliage, and birds. As a member of the Hudson River and White Mountain schools, she painted scenes in the Catskills, White Mountains, Adirondacks, Green Mountains, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut, as...

    (pp. 479-482)

    William Woodward’s influence was vital to the evolution of New Orleans as a southern arts center. Woodward was born in 1859 in Seekonk, Mass., and his early years were dominated by the history and culture of this New England town. His mother was a teacher who encouraged his appreciation of literature; her brother (Woodward’s uncle), George Carpenter, who was killed in the Civil War, was an artist whose works may have been an early aesthetic influence. In 1876 Woodward and his younger brother, Ellsworth, who were both interested in art by that time, were taken by their father to the...

    (pp. 483-484)
  216. INDEX
    (pp. 485-504)